Battery electric vehicles or BEVs are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. BEVs are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission (ZEV) passenger automobiles, because they produce no emissions while being driven. 


The electrical energy carried onboard a BEV to power the motors is obtained from a variety of battery chemistries arranged into battery packs. For additional range genset trailers or pusher trailers are sometimes used, forming a type of hybrid vehicle. Batteries used in electric vehicles include "flooded" lead-acid, absorbed glass mat, NiCd, nickel metal hydride, Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries.



Thomas Edison and his electric Detroit from 1913


Thomas Edison  - 1912 Detroit Electric



While hybrid vehicles apply many of the technical advances first developed for BEVs, they are not considered BEVs. Of interest to BEV developers, however, is the fact that hybrid vehicles are advancing the state of the art (in cost/performance ratios) of batteries, electric motors, chargers, and motor controllers, which may bode well for the future of both pure electric vehicles and the so called "plug-in hybrid".




BEVs were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. Most notable was perhaps breaking of the 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph) speed barrier by Camille Jenatzy on 29.4 1899 in his rocket-like EV named La Jamais Contente. This was the first world record over 100 km/h.


BEVs were produced by Anthony Electric, Baker Electric, Detroit Electric, and others and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles.


Some feel that the introduction of the electric starter by Cadillac in 1913, which simplified the difficult and sometimes dangerous task of starting the internal combustion engine, was the downfall of the electric vehicle, as 1912 may have been the pinnacle year for BEVs. Still others point out that it was radiators, in use as early as 1895 by Panhard-Levassor in their Systeme Panhard design, which allowed engines to keep cool enough to run for more than a few minutes, before which they had to stop and cool down at horse troughs along with the steamers to replenish their water supply. The truth may be that EV's had fallen out of favor over the mass produced Ford Model-T which went into production four years earlier in 1908.






X1 electric car v Lamborghini







Production and conversion battery electric vehicles typically achieve 0.3 to 0.5 kWh per mile (0.2 to 0.3 kWh/km). The U.S. fleet average of 23 mpg of gasoline is equivalent to 1.46 kWh/mi and the 70 mpg Insight gets 0.48 kWh/mi (assuming 33.6 kWh per U.S. gallon of gasoline), so battery electric cars vehicles are relatively efficient. When comparisons are made for the total energy cycle, the efficiency figures for BEVs drop, but such calculations are not commonly offered for ICE vehicles (e.g. the loss of efficiency from energy used to produce specialized fuels such as gasoline as compared to the raw energy available from crude oil or natural gas.


CO2 emission comparisons [5] are one good indication of the current grid-mix vs gasoline consumption. Such comparisons include production, transmission, charging, and vehicle losses. The CO2 emissions can improve for BEVs through the use of sustainable grid or local resources but are essentially fixed for gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately the EV1, Ranger EV, EVPlus, and other production vehicles are missing from this site.



Venturi Fetish


Venturi Fetish production electric 0-100km/h in 4.5 secs



  • RAV4-EV vs Gas RAV4

  • 2000 Toyota RAV4-EV 4.1 short tons CO2 (104 mpg)

  • 2000 Toyota RAV4 2wd 7.2 short tons CO2 (26 mpg)

  • Other BEVs

  • 2000 Nissan Altra EV 3.5 short tons CO2

  • 2000 Nissan Altra EV 3.5 short tons CO2

  • 2002 Toyota RAV4-EV 3.8 short tons CO2

  • 2002 Ford Explorer 7.8 short tons CO2 (USPS)

  • Hybrids

  • 2000 Honda Insight 3.0 short tons CO2

  • 2001 Honda Insight 3.1 short tons CO2

  • 2005 Toyota Prius 3.5 short tons CO2

  • 2005 Ford Escape H 2x 5.8 short tons CO2

  • 2005 Ford Escape H 4x 6.2 short tons CO2

  • Standard ICE vehicles

  • 2005 Dodge Neon 2.0L 6.0 short tons CO2

  • 2005 Ford Escape 4x 8.0 short tons CO2

  • 2005 GMC Envoy XUV 4x 11.7 short tons CO2


It is important to study the full effect of any vehicle design, especially when promoted as better than the status quo. The goal may be to look at overall efficiency only or it may be the total environmental impact, since environmental damage reduction is often the goal behind alternative vehicle efforts. Many factors must be considered when making an overall comparison of total environmental impact. The most comprehensive comparison is known as a cradle-to-grave or lifecycle analysis. The analysis considers all inputs including original production and fuel sources and all outputs and end products including emissions and disposal. The varying amounts and types of outputs and inputs vary in their environmental effects and are difficult to directly compare. For example, are the environmental effects of nickel or cadmium contamination from a battery production facility less than those of hydrocarbon emissions or from petroleum refining? If so, how much, or how much of each would be equivalent? Similar types of questions would need to be resolved for each input and output in order to make a comparison.


A large lifecycle input difference is that the electric vehicle requires electricity instead of a liquid fuel. The advantage of the electric vehicle is that the electricity can be provided by renewable energy. However, if the electricity is produced from fossil fuel sources (as most electricity currently is) the advantage of the electric vehicle is reduced, or nearly eliminated. Thus utilizing and developing additional renewable energy sources is required for electric vehicles to further reduce their net emissions.


The input for electric vehicle production that differs from internal combustion types is primarily in the large battery. The batteries, however, may not last as long as combustion engines, and needing to be replaced would account for a greater input requirement for their production. However, as BEVs do not require an ICE engine, support systems or related maintenance, they should be more reliable and require less maintenance. Although BEVs are not common, there are related markets which require advances in battery technology, such as mobile phones, laptops, forklifts and hybrid electric vehicles. Improvements to battery technology for any of these other markets will make BEVs more practical too.



KIA Sidewinder hybrid for 2008 - powered by a natural gas turbine 

with electric drive motors in each wheel






Many of today's electric vehicles are capable of acceleration performance which exceeds that of conventional gasoline powered vehicles. Electric vehicles can utilize a direct motor to wheel configuration which increases the power deliverability to the wheels. Having multiple motors connected directly to the wheels allows for each of the wheels to be used for both propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing traction. 


In some cases, the motor can be housed directly in the wheel, such as in the Whispering Wheel design, which lowers the center of gravity and reduces the number of moving parts. When not fitted with an axle, differential or transmission, many electric vehicles have greater torque availability, which goes directly to accelerating the wheels. A single gear design in some electric vehicles eliminates gear shifting, giving the newer electric vehicles both smoother acceleration and braking. This also allows higher torque at wide rpm levels. Nonetheless, top speed and total possible drive-train efficiency are severely limited by the lack of a gearbox. For example, the Venturi Fetish delivers supercar acceleration, yet is limited to a top speed of only 100mph.





There are no currently available technologies which can provide all of the energy required for the life of a BEV car. This means that all BEV cars must be refuelled by periodic charging of the batteries.


BEVs most commonly charge from the power grid, which is in turn generated from a variety of domestic resources — primarily coal, natural gas, and nuclear. Home power such as roof top photovoltaic panels, microhydro or wind can also be used. Electricity can also be supplied with traditional fuels via a generator.





The range of a BEV depends greatly on the number and type of batteries used. The weight and type of vehicle also has an impact just as it does on the mileage of traditional vehicles. Conversions usually use lead-acid batteries because they are the most available and inexpensive, such conversions generally have 20 to 50 miles (30 to 80 km) of range and are built to satisfy the drivers' individual needs. Production EVs with lead-acid batteries are capable of up to 80 miles (130 km) per charge. NiMH chemistries have high energy density and can deliver up to 120 miles (200 km) of range. 


Lithium ion equipped EVs have been claimed in press releases to have 250-300 miles (400-500 km) of range per charge[7]. EVs can also use pusher trailers or genset trailers in order to function as a hybrid vehicle for occasions when unlimited range is desired without the additional weight during normal short range use. The vehicle becomes an internal combustion vehicle when utilizing the trailer, but it allows the greater range that may be needed for limited times while making the advantages of the BEV available for most shorter trips.


In practice most vehicle journeys of all kinds are quite short, the majority being under 30 km (20 mi) per day. Thus, a BEV that can do 60 km (40 mi) in a day is quite practical for most trips for most users, and a substantial additional range can be added for commuters where charging facilities are available at the destination.




Mercedes Benz F 600 Hygenius



The new F 600 HYGENIUS is the latest in the series of research vehicles from Mercedes-Benz that point the way forwards for the future. Powered by a zero-emission fuel cell drive with an output of 85 kW/115 hp, the compact-class car with a family-friendly design consumes the equivalent of 2.9 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres and has an operating range in excess of 400 kilometres.


Dr. Thomas Weber, Daimler-Chrysler AG Board Member for Research & Technology and Head of Development at the Mercedes Car Group, said: "By developing the fuel cell, we are creating a new basis for supplying energy in tomorrow's vehicles which will make a further lasting improvement to their environmental compatibility."   "This represents a major step towards bringing the fuel cell drive up to full production maturity, a goal that we aim to achieve some time between 2012 and 2015."


In addition to the fuel cell technology, the Mercedes-Benz research vehicle also showcases an operating concept with virtual displays, new-style seats and other pioneering technologies designed to enhance safety and passenger comfort.



Battery charging


The charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the grid connection. A normal household outlet is between 1.5 kW in the US to 3 kW in countries with 240 V supply. The main connection to a house might be able to sustain 10 kW, and special wiring can be installed to use this. At this higher power level charging even a small, 7 kWh (14–28 mi) pack, would probably require one hour. Compare this to the effective power delivery rate of an average petrol pump, about 5,000 kW. Even if the supply power can be increased, most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their 'charge rate' C1.


Some recent handheld device battery designs by Toshiba [8] are claimed to be capable of accepting an 80% charge in as little as 60 seconds. Scaling this specific power characteristic up to the same 7 kWh EV pack would result in the need for a peak of 336 kW of power from some source for those 60 seconds. It is not clear that such batteries will work directly in BEVs as heat build-up may make them unsafe.


Most people do not require fast recharging because they have enough time (6 to 8 hours) during the work day or overnight to refuel. As the charging does not require attention it takes a few seconds for an owner to plug in and unplug their vehicle. Many BEV drivers prefer refueling at home, avoiding the inconvenience of visiting a petrol station. Some workplaces provide special parking bays for electric vehicles with charging equipment provided.


The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways. The first is a direct electrical connection known as conductive coupling. This might be as simple as a mains lead into a weather proof socket through to special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the user from high voltages. The second approach is known as inductive coupling. A special 'paddle' is inserted into a slot on the car. The paddle is one winding of a transformer, while the other is built into the car. When the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to the battery pack. The major advantage of this approach is that there is no possibility of electrocution as there are no exposed conductors although interlocks can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. Conductive coupling equipment is lower in cost and much more efficient due to a vastly lower component count.





Battery life


Individual batteries are usually arranged into large battery packs of various voltage and ampere-hour capacity products to give the required energy capacities. Battery life must be considered when calculating cost of operation, as all batteries wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on a number of factors.


New scientific and empirical evidence from running individual EV conversions shows that most of these negative factors linked to batteries connected in series for traction application can be mitigated with good DC/DC based Battery Management System, thermo insulation/venting, and proper care. That also includes selecting a well balanced mix of components oriented towards specific performance properties, i.e. range, speed. For instance a recombination type of lead-acid battery with C1 hour discharge rate about 120Ah (equals to 220Ah C20 "marketing rating") should be used accordingly. 


Therefore the EV overall consumption of particular low/mid voltage vehicle should not often exceed in this example 80-100% of this C1 hours rating — this applies for more advanced battery chemistries like Li-ion with slightly higher discharges C3-C5 as well. In this particular example, longevity of the lead-acid battery pack will be preserved by not discharging it in a prolonged or continuous regime above 120Ah currents.


The depth of discharge (DOD) is the recommended proportion of the total available energy storage for which that battery will achieve its rated cycles. Deep cycle lead-acid batteries generally should not be discharged below 50% capacity. More modern formulations can survive deeper cycles.


In real world use some fleet RAV4-EVs have exceeded 100,000 miles (160,000 km) with little degradation in their daily range. Jay Leno's 1912? Baker Electric still operates on its original Edison cells. Battery replacement costs may be partially or fully offset by the lack of regular maintenance such as oil and filter changes and by greater reliability due to fewer moving parts.


Critics claim that batteries pose a serious environmental hazard requiring significant disposal or recycling costs. Some of the chemicals used in the manufacture of advanced batteries such as Li-ion, Li ion polymer and zinc-air are hazardous and potentially environmentally damaging. While these technologies are developed for small markets this is not a concern, but if production was to be scaled to match current car demand the risks might become unacceptable.


Supporters counter with the fact that traditional car batteries are one of the most successful recycling programs and that widespread use of battery electric vehicles would require the implementation of similar recycling regulations. More modern formulations also tend to use lighter, more biologically remediable elements such as iron, lithium, carbon and zinc. In particular, moving away from the heavy metals cadmium and chromium makes disposal less critical.


It is also not clear that batteries pose any greater risk than is currently accepted for fossil fuel based transport. Petrol and diesel powered transportation cause significant environmental damage in the form of spills, smog and distillation byproducts.





Austria Solar electric car 1991





Firefighters and rescue personnel receive special training to deal with the higher voltages encountered in electric and hybrid gas-electric vehicle accidents.





The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the availability of batteries with high energy densities, power density, long life, and reasonable cost as all other aspects such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost competitive with ICE components.


The most likely future for BEVs currently appears to be the incremental improvements needed for hybrids. Hybrid EVs are a smaller step from purely ICE driven cars, yet share much of the same core technology as true BEVs. As hybrids become more refined, battery life, capacity and energy density will improve and the combustion engine used less (particular with PHEV). At some point it may become economic for hybrids to be sold without their ICE, finally leading to BEVs being commonplace.


Alternatively, if fuel cells make a breakthrough neither BEVs nor hybrids will be required. More likely fuel cells will replace the ICE in hybrid designs, providing a large energy density, whilst a more traditional battery pack provides the required power density.


Li-ion, Li-poly and zinc-air batteries have demonstrated energy densities high enough to deliver range and recharge times comparable to conventional vehicles. Their greater cost has discouraged use in commercial BEVs, but as production increases for other markets BEVs will no doubt use them.


Flywheel energy storage is a completely different form of electrical energy storage. It shares a lot with battery technologies and both batteries and flywheels are used in the same applications. Recent advances in materials and electronic control makes a flywheel 'BEV' a strong possibility. There have been prototype electric locomotives using flywheel storage.




The greatest fans of BEVs are those who have obtained or built and used them. This is a self-selected group because BEVs have not been promoted by the major manufacturers in the United States, so their enthusiasm may be misleading. Owners of conventional gasoline vehicles, once given the chance to live with an BEV often leave their gasoline cars sitting in the driveway. Spouses, luke warm when the vehicle is purchased often take over the vehicle from the purchaser once they use it. Fans point out the following:


  • People can take responsibility for their own energy production with renewables. This will reduce dependence on foreign oil and large scale coal mining. Many electric vehicle owners and operators express great satisfaction in this aspect of electric vehicle use, even while acknowledging that this use can have only little effect on these matters unless adopted more widely and produced in greater quantities.

  • Battery electric vehicles are quieter than ICE powered vehicles.

  • BEVs do not produce noxious fumes around the car.

  • If packs were mass-produced the charging time could be increased by swapping the pack over with the charger. (This is not practical currently as the battery packs are far too heavy to handle without special tools)



Stockpile of crushed EV1s





Some USA EV fans have accused the three major domestic manufacturers, General Motors, Chrysler Corporation and Ford Motor Company of deliberately sabotaging their own electric vehicle efforts through several methods: failing to market, failing to produce appropriate vehicles, failing to satisfy demand, and using lease-only programs with prohibitions against end of lease purchase. By these actions they have managed to terminate their BEV development and marketing programs despite operators' offers of purchase and assumption of maintenance liabilities. They also point to the Chrysler "golf cart" program as an insult to the marketplace and to mandates, accusing Chrysler of intentionally failing to produce a vehicle usable in mixed traffic conditions. 


The manufacturers, in their own defense, have responded that they only make what the public wants. EV fans point out that this response is the same argument used by GM to justify the intensively promoted 11 mpg 6500 lb (2,950 kg) Hummer H2 SUV. Of the various BEVs marketed by the "Big Three", only the General Motors EV1 (manufactured by GM) and the Th!nk City (imported and marketed by Ford) came close to being appropriate configurations for a mass market. However, at the end of their programs GM destroyed its fleet, despite offers to purchase them by their drivers. Ford's Norwegian-built "Th!nk" fleet was covered by a three-year exemption to the standard U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety laws, after which time Ford had planned to dismantle and recycle its fleet; the company was, however, persuaded by activists to not destroy its fleet but return them to Norway and sell them as used vehicles. Ford also sold a few lead-acid battery Ranger EVs, and some fleet purchase Chevrolet S-10 EV pickups are being refurbished and sold on the secondary market.


Both Honda and Toyota also manufactured electric only vehicles. Honda followed the lead of the other majors and terminated their lease-only programs. Toyota offered vehicles for both sale and lease. While Toyota has terminated manufacture of new vehicles it continues to support those manufactured. It is actually possible to see a RAV-4 EV on the road but this is indeed a rare sight.







Fastest electric dragster





United States


The United States produced many electric automobiles, such as the Detroit Electric, during the early 20th century, but production dropped to insignificant numbers with the triumph of gasoline powered internal combustion engine vehicles in the 1920s.


In recent years, electric vehicles have been promoted through the use of tax credits. In California, the California Air Resources Board attempted to set a quota for the use of electric cars, but this was withdrawn after complaints by auto manufacturers that the quotas were economically unfeasible due to a lack of consumer demand. However, many believe this complaint to be unwarranted due to the claim that there were thousands waiting to purchase or lease electric cars from companies such as General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler in which these companies refused to meet that demand despite their production capability. 


Others note that the original electric car leases were at reduced cost and the program could not be expected to draw the high volumes required without selling or renting the cars at a financial loss. Since the California program was designed by the California Air Resources Board to reduce air pollution and not to promote electric vehicles, the zero emissions requirement in California was replaced by a combination requirement of a tiny number of zero-emissions vehicles (to promote research and development) and a much larger number of partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs), which is an administrative designation for an super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV), which emits pollution of about ten percent of that of an ordinary low emissions vehicle.



Outside the United States


In London, electrically powered vehicles are one of the categories of vehicle exempted from the congestion charge. This is also true in all of Norway, where zero-emission vehicles are also allowed to use the bus lane. In most cities of the United Kingdom low speed milk floats (milk trucks) are used for the home delivery of fresh milk.



Production vehicles


Recent or current production battery electric vehicles sold or leased to fleets include:


  • AC Propulsion tzero Very fast two-seat sportster prototype. Four produced.

  • Anthony Electric

  • Arton Birdie

  • Baker Electric

  • Bertone Blitz

  • Citicar/CommutaCar/Comuta-Van

  • Citroën Berlingo Electrique

  • Chevrolet S10 EV (Some sold to fleets, available on secondary market as refurbished vehicles) S-10 with EV1 powertrain, over 100 produced only 45 sold to private owners and survived. Currently only EVbones in Mesa AZ restores and converts to NiMH battery packs. 2005

  • Chrysler TEVan (1993-1995) and Second Generation EPIC (1998-200?)

  • Commuter Cars Tango Narrow, fast two seater (fore and aft.) Now accepting pre-orders in the US.

  • Corbin Sparrow Three-wheeled, highway capable single-seat vehicle

  • Detroit Electric (1907-1939)

  • Elcat (1985-2002, almost all vehicles in second-hand use)

  • Ford Ranger EV (1998-2003) some sold, most leased.
    (Several hundred produced for lease only, almost all recovered and most destroyed)
    (Ford has announced reconditioning and sale of a limited quantity to former leaseholders by lottery)

  • General Motors EV1 Gen 1 (1996-1997), Gen II (1999-2003)
    (Over a thousand produced for lease only, all recovered and most destroyed)

  • Global Electric Motorcars, LLC. GEM Quite common in Davis, California.

  • Honda EV Plus (199?-1999)
    (Several hundred produced for lease only, all recovered and most destroyed)

  • Hyundai SantaFe EVCurrently testing fast charge in Hawaii 2005

  • Kewet

  • Maranello 4cycle — Italiano

  • Nissan Altra Lithium-powered hatchback; never offered (even by lease) to consumers

  • Porsche 550 Spyder replica electric conversion

  • Peugeot 106 EV

  • Peugeot Partner

  • Pivco City Bee

  • Renault EV Kangoo

  • REVA India-built city car (40 mph top speed,) now also sold in England as the "G-Whiz"

  • Sebring-Vanguard Citicar

  • Sinclair C5

  • Solectria Force (Conversion, not currently in production)

  • Think City (Norwegian import by Ford, lease only, all recovered and returned to Norway)

  • Toyota RAV4 EV
    (Rare, some leased and sold on U.S. East and west coast, out of production, supported) Toyota agreed to stop crushing

  • Toyota Force

  • Twike3 wheeled Swedish EV with peddal assist optiion.

  • Universal Electric Vehicle Corporation Electrum series Spyder, Com V-3

  • Venturi Fétish Marketed as the world's first electric sports two-seater. Monaco

  • Zap Manufactures the Xebra electric car, the U.S. only mass produced enclosed electric vehicle

  • Zebra Model Z roadster (Formerly Renaissance Tropica)

  • Zytec Lotus Elise




Recent prototype EVs include:


  • Eliica (Electric LIthium-Ion Car) designed by a team at Keio University in Tokyo, led by Professor Hiroshi Shimizu.

  • Cree SAM

  • Ford E-Ka

  • Lexus EV (Featured in the film Minority Report)

  • Pinanfarina Ethos II

  • Renault EV Racer

  • Solectria Sunrise

  • Subaru Zero EV

  • Suzuki EV Sport

  • Maya-100 Battery: Li-ion "super"-polymer; claimed range: 360 km

  • Mitsubishi Colt EV (Li-ion battery, in-wheel motors)

  • Volvo 3CC Three seater with lithium ion batteries

  • Electric Scooter Razor Electric Bikes




Production announcements


  • Venturi "Fetish" sports car to use AC propulsion components

  • AC propulsion announces plans to convert Toyota Scion xA and xB vehicles (items 8 and 9).

  • Mitsubishi, a Japanese automobile manufacturer, announced on May 11, 2005 that it will mass-produce its MIEV (Mitsubishi In-wheel Electric Vehicle.) Test fleets are to arrive in 2006 and production models should be available in 2008. The first test car, revealed to be Colt EV, is expected to have a range of 93 miles using lithium-ion batteries and in-wheel electric motors. The target price of a MIEV should be around US$19,000. No export decision has yet been made.

  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle are being developed by calcars and Edrive. They take a Toyota Prius, add more battery capacity and modify the controller. Then they can get 250 mpg by plugging in at home for a small light charge each night. http://www.calcars.org/


Hobbyists, research, and racing


There is a minor industry supporting the conversion and building of BEVs by hobbyists. Some designers point out that a specific type of electric vehicle offers comfort, utility and quickness, sacrificing only range. This is called a short range electric vehicle. This type may be built using high performance lead–acid batteries, but of only about half the mass that would be expected to obtain a 60 to 80 mile (100 to 130 km) range. 


The result is a vehicle with about a thirty mile (50 km) range, but when designed with appropriate weigh distribution (40/60 front to rear) does not require power steering, offers exceptional acceleration in the lower end of its operating range, is freeway capable and legal, and costs less to build and maintain. By including a manual transmission this type of vehicle can obtain both better performance and higher efficiency than the single speed types developed by the major manufactures. 


Unlike the converted golf carts used for neighborhood electric vehicles, these may be operated on typical suburban throughways (40 to 45 mph or 60 or 70 km/h speed limits are typical) and can keep up with traffic typical to these roads and to the short on and off segments of freeways that are common in suburban areas.


Aside from production electric cars, often hobbyists build their own EVs by converting existing production cars to run solely on electricity. Some even drag race them as members of NEDRA. Universities such as the University of California, Irvine even go so far as to build their own custom electric or hybrid-electric cars from scratch.


A non-profit program "CalCars" at the University of California, Davis, is attempting to convert a hybrid Toyota Prius automobile to operate as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) through the installation of additional batteries and software modifications. Such a vehicle will operate as would a pure electric for short trips, taking its power from household and workplace rechargers. For longer trips the vehicle will operate as it does at present—as a "strong" hybrid vehicle. A prototype (using sealed lead-acid batteries) is undergoing tests. It is expected that a production conversion would use a more advanced battery. (Advanced batteries are under development and soon for production in the support of hybrid vehicles.) They are currently soliciting donations of additional vehicles and funds for this project.


Battery electric vehicles are also highly popular in quarter mile (400 m) racing. The National Electric Drag Racing Association regularly holds electric car races and often competes them successfully against exotics such as the Dodge Viper.




Eliica prototype 


  • Japanese Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Shimizu from Faculty of Environmental Information of the Keio University created the limousine of the future: the Eliica (Electric Lithium Ion Car) has 8 wheels with electric 55 kW hub motors (8WD) with an output of 470 kW and zero emissions. With a top speed of 190 km/h and a maximun reach of 320 km provided by lithium-ion-batteries. See the video at [20]

  • German Umweltbrief [21] want to convert an old-timer car into full electric drive with 4 wheel hub motors; a retro car for the 21th century called electro4. This drive is nearly free of abrasion and maintenance and very reliable. Further advantages are optimal capability of acceleration and best traction through individual control of the wheels. Also the power is generated in the place where its used. Gearbox, kardan shaft and drive shaft become unnecessary, which means less weight. Even an old car can get a torque of 1000 N·m. This 4WD is very silent. There is no vibration and no motor cold-running, the full energy is available immediately. Also small cars can get this system. All is combinable with anti-block system, anti-slip system, stability system, etc., climate control with a/c, heating/cabin, pre-conditioning etc. [22]




- Alfa Romeo

- Audi


- Citroen

- Fiat

- Ford

- Lotus

- Mercedes

- Peugeot

- Renault

- Seat

- Smart

- Volkswagen




See also "http://www.driveclean.ca.gov/" for an official California site on ZEVs and PZEVs. 


A page on this site, "http://www.driveclean.ca" will also list the available cars in various categories, especially informative if you are looking for an electrically powered city car (that page has no entries).






The world's fastest street legal electric car



EV news stories



HybridCars.com - includes articles on hybrid electric cars and their impact on the environment.

Howstuffworks: How Hybrid Cars Work - features an illustrated description of the parallel hybrid powertrain of the Toyota Prius.

FutureTruck - information about the competition which challenges students to modify SUVs into fuel-efficient hybrid-electric vehicles.

GreenHybrid.com - hybrid electric vehicle resource offering forums, articles, car comparisons, and performance statistics.

Care2.com: Hybrid Cars - gives an overview of how hybrid cars work.

UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Program - advanced Hybrid Vehicle research group.

Eartheasy: Hybrid Cars - contains news and information about the various hybrid cars in production as well as upcoming developments.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles - works toward developing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) with an eye towards moving them from research and development to the marketplace.

Wikipedia: Hybrid Car - overview including the history, technology, types, and perks of automobiles powered by internal combustion engines, electric motors, and battery rechargers.

California State University, Chico - Advanced Vehicle Research & Development - students designed and built a hybrid electric car.

Energy Quest: Hybrid Vehicles - short summary of the new type of cars that save energy.

MSN Money: Hybrid Cars - helps you decide whether purchasing a hybrid vehicle is the right choice for you over traditional combustion engine cars. Contains information and pricing on current models, the tax advantages of buying, and more.

Wired News: Hybrid Mileage Comes Up Short - hyperlinked article that examines the shortcomings of hybrid vehicles.

All About Hybrid Cars - offers a hybrid car buyer's guide ebook as well as model comparisons, related news articles, FAQs, and a directory of web resources.

Electromotive Hybrid Electric Development - introduces the Electromotive Strategic Power Assist Hybrid System.

Hybrid Car Information - offering hybrid electric car news and a guide to current and future hybrid models.

U.S. Department of Energy: Hybrid Electric Vehicles - contains information about HEV benefits, availability, maintenance, and history.

Hybrid-Cars-Guide.com - offers advice on choosing hybrid cars and information on hybrid vehicle technologies.





Dodge Viper v Tzero electric car




FORMULA E - Formula E is a class of auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The "formula", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all participants' cars must comply. Formula E is intended to be the highest class of competition for one-make, single-seat, electrically-powered racing cars. The series was conceived in 2012, with the inaugural championship to be held in 2014. Demonstration events are planned for the second half of 2013.

Former Formula One driver Lucas di Grassi was announced as the series test driver in September 2012. Forty-two cars were ordered in November 2012, with Formula One team McLaren providing the motor, transmission and electronics that all cars will use.

Ten host cities are planning races for the 2014 season; unlike most motorsport categories, Formula E races will be run exclusively on street circuits. Rio de Janeiro and Rome were the first host cities to be announced. FE holdings are currently in talks with London mayor Boris Johnson for a London race event.












The Achilles heel of electric cars is range and price. Everybody wants one, especially those who live in congested cities. The very latest car with a respectable city range and very fast charge time is the Kity 301, seen below in white.



Highland Kity 301, lithium battery powered eco car


The Kity 301 is a two seat, two door hatchback that could retail around the £7,500 mark with car tax, to make it one of the most economical to buy city cars in the UK. The range is likely to be 50-60 miles on a single charge at city speeds, with fast charging in around 20 minutes and a top speed more than enough to cope with fast moving city traffic.





You may be able to get a home charging outlet fitted free of charge, subject to conditions.





There may be Goverment backed incentive schemes to help offset the cost of replacing your existing petrol or diesel car.



http://www.ev-info.com/  http://www.evtrader.com/





Top speed


Charging time

Nominal range

Market release date







Kewet Buddy

80 km/h (50 mph)

6–8 hours.

40–80 km (25–50 mi)

January 2010

Citroën C1 ev'ie

97 km/h (60 mph)


6–7 hours

100 to 110 km (60 to 70 mi)

30 April 2009 UK only


63 km/h (39 mph)


8 hours (complete recharge)

80–90 km (50–56 mi)

First manufactured in Denmark 1987 under the name of "Mini-el" until 1992.
New production started in 1995 by a German company.

Mia electric

100 km/h (62 mph)

1 to 4 adults

3 to 5 hours when charged from household

125 km (78 mi)

Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom, Norway, Czech Republic, South Africa, Mexico


64 km/h (40 mph)


5 to 8 hrs

64–110 km (40–68 mi)


NICE Mega City

64 km/h (40 mph)


8 hours.

96 km (60 mi)

October 2006.


90 km/h (56 mph)

4 adults

8 hrs

250 km (155 mi)

Available in Denmark for now.

Stevens Zecar

90 km/h (56 mph)

6–8 hours.

80 km (50 mi)

March 2008.







Top speed



Charging time

Nominal range

Market release date

BEV Electron

110 km/h (68 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 7 seconds

5 adults

9 hrs with onboard charger

1.5 hrs with external charger

120 km (75 mi)

Available in Australia only.

BMW i3

150 km/h (93 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in less than 8 seconds

4 adults

4h with the 240-volt charging unit or less than 30 minutes at public DC charging stations (when charging from 0 to 80%)

130 to 160 km (81 to 99 mi)

Released in Europe in 2013.
A gasoline-powered range extender option is available to increased range to 240 to 300 km (150 to 190 mi)

BMW Brilliance Zinoro 1E

130 km/h (81 mph)

150 km (93 mi) 

Released in China in early 2014.

BYD e6

140 km/h (87 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in < 8 seconds

5 adults

300 km (186 mi)

Field testing as taxi fleet began in Shenzhen, China in May 2010.

Chery QQ3 EV

Launched in China in March 2010

Chevrolet Spark EV

132 km (82 mi)

The first all-electric car from General Motors after the GM EV1. It was released in limited quantities in the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013.

Citroën C-Zero

130 km/h (81 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 15.9 seconds.

4 adults

7 hours when charged from household; 30 minutes when charging from a quick charger system

150 km (93 mi)

Available in Europe.

Fiat 500e

88 mph (142 km/h)

0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 8.5 seconds.

87 mi (140 km)

Available in California only

Ford Focus Electric

135 km/h (84 mph)

0–97 km/h (60 mph) in 10.2 seconds.

5 adults

18 to 20 hours when charged from 120v outlet; 3 to 4 hours when charged from 240V outlet.

122 km (76 mi)

Available in the U.S. since December 2011; available in Europe since August 2013.

Honda Fit EV

148 km/h (92 mph)

0-97 km/h (60 mph) in 9.5 seconds.

132 km (82 mi)


Launched in China in 2010

Kia Soul EV

150 km (93 mi) EPA,
130 to 190 km (81 to 118 mi) Kia


Lightning GT

200 km/h (124 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in < 5 seconds.

2 adults

under an hour

240 km (149 mi)


Mia electric

100 km/h (62 mph)

1 to 4 adults

3 to 5 hours when charged from household

125 km (78 mi)

Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom, Norway, Czech Republic, South Africa, Mexico

Mitsubishi i-MiEV

130 km/h (81 mph)

4 adults

7 to 14 hours when charged from household, depending on the type of power; 30 minutes when charging from a quick charger system (80% charged)

170 km (106 mi)

Released in Japan in July 2009 for fleet customers. Available in Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, Europe, the U.S., Canada and some Latin American countries. As of July 2014, global sales reached 32,000 units, including the rebadged variants Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero sold in Europe.

Morgan Plus E

185 km/h (115 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 6 seconds.

2 adults

Nissan Leaf

150 km/h (93 mph)

5 adults

up to 20 hours when charged from 110/120v outlet; 8 hours when charging from 220/240 volt outlet; 30 minutes for 440v "quick charge" (to 80% of battery capacity)

EPA rating 117 km (73 mi); 2013 model: 121 km (75 mi) EPA / 200 km (120 mi) NEDC

Released in the U.S. and Japan in December 2010, is available in 35 countries. The Leaf is the top selling electric car ever, with global sales of 125,000 units by July 2014.

Renault Fluence ZE

135 km/h (84 mph), electronically limited

5 adults

battery swap in 5 minutes

135 km (84 mi) + 15 km limp home mode

Released in France in 2010, Israel in Jan 2012, UK in Jan 2012, Turkey in May 2012.

Renault Zoe

135 km/h (84 mph), electronically limited

0–100 km/h (62 mph), in 13.5 seconds

5 adults

six to nine hours with 3.7 kW, 30 minutes with 43 kW (80 %)

210 km (130 mi)

Released in France in December 2012

Smart electric drive second gen

Released in 2013

Tesla Model S

P85 kW·h
214 km/h (133 mph)

85 kW·h
201 km/h (125 mph)
60 kW·h
193 km/h (120 mph)

P85 kW·h

0–97 km/h (60 mph) in 4.2 seconds

85 kW·h
0–97 km/h (60 mph) in 5.6 seconds
60 kW·h
0–97 km/h (60 mph) in 5.9 seconds

5 adults + 2 kids (optional)

battery swap in 1.5 minutes; 50% in about 20 minutes by Tesla Superchargers

85 kW·h
426 km (265 mi) (EPA)
483 km (300 mi) (Tesla Motors)

60 kW·h
335 km (208 mi) (EPA)
370 km (230 mi) (Tesla Motors)

Available in the United States, Canada, Europe, China and Hong Kong. As of June 2014, a total of 39,163 units have been delivered.

Venturi Fétish

200 km/h (124 mph)

0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 4 seconds.

2 adults

3 hours with external charge booster, 8 hours with onboard charging system

340 km (211 mi)

2006 to present

Volkswagen e-Up!

130 km/h (81 mph)

4 adults

2.3 kW plugged into any standard 230V socket, 3.6 kW via a home-installed wall box or with up to 40 kW plugged into a DC fast-charging station

160 km (99 mi)









Original MRSP(2)
/Lease per month
(current $)

(EV mode
for PHEVs)


Models currently available in some markets




144,900 kroner
(~US$24,000) to
186,850 kroner

50 mi (80 km)(Lead-acid battery)
75 mi (121 km) (NiMH battery)

A total of 754 units have been sold in Norway between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013. Since its inception in 1991, combined sales of the Kewet and Buddy totaled about 1,500 units through October 2013, mainly in Norway.

Mitsubishi i-MiEV Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-ZERO


4 million yen
to US$29,125 (US)

100 mi (160 km)

Fleet leasing began in July 2009, and sales to the public began in Japan in April 2010, followed by Hong Kong and Australia in 2010, and several European countries, Costa Rica, Chile, Canada and the U.S. in 2011.

Chery QQ3 EV


after incentives

100 km (62 mi)

Deliveries began in China in March 2010.  Sales during 2012 totaled 5,305 units, making the QQ3 EV the best selling all-electric car in China in 2012, with a market share of 44% of total electric cars sales that year. Cumulative sales since January 2012 reached 9,512 units through October 2013.




130 km (81 mi)

Launched in China in 2010. Cumulative sales reached 4,068 units through December 2012.
A third generation model, called JAC J3 iev, was launched in September 2012.

Tazzari Zero



140 km (87 mi)

Sales began in several European countries in 2010.
A total of 34 units were sold in Norway in 2011.

Nissan Leaf


(MY 2011)

(MY 2012)

(MY 2013)

MY 2011/12
73 mi (117 km

MY 2013
75 mi (121 km)

MY 2014/15
84 mi (135 km)

About 140,000 Leafs have been sold worldwide since December 2010, making the Nissan Leaf the world's best-selling highway-capable electric car in history. The United States is the top selling market with 63,944 units sold through September 2014, followed by Japan with 45,342 units, and Europe with over 28,000 units. The European market leader is Norway with 11,020 new Leafs sold and over 14,600 units registered (includes over 3,000 used imports) as of September 2014, followed by the UK with 6,115 units sold, and France with 3,302 units.

Chevrolet Volt


(MY 2011)

(MY 2012)

(MY 2014)

35 mi (56 km)

As of September 2014, the Volt and Ampera models have combined global sales of over 83,600 units. Volt sales are led by the United States with 69,092 units sold, followed by Canada with 3,725 units, and the Netherlands with 1,060 units registered. A total of 9,334 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas have been sold in Europe through August 2014, with the Netherlands as the leading market with 4,970 Amperas registered as of September 2014 followed by Germany with 1,493 Amperas sold through September 2014.

Smart electric drive


2nd generation
Leasing only
GB£375/month (UK)
US$599/mo (US)
3rd generation
US$25,750 (US)

2nd generation
63 mi (101 km)
3rd generation
90 mi (140 km)[

More than 8,800 units have been sold in North America and Europe through June 2014. This figure includes over 2,300 units of the second generation models leased in 18 markets around the world between 2009 and October 2012. Of these, 1,721 units were registered in Europe through October 2012,and 527 units in the U.S. through December 2012. During 2013 a total of 4,130 units of the third generation were sold worldwide. Over 6,500 units of the third generation have been sold through June 2014. As of June 2014, combined sales of both generations reached 3,959 units in Germany, 2,542 units in the U.S. and 865 units in France.

Wheego Whip LiFe



100 mi (160 km)

U.S. sales began in April 2011. A total of 34 units have been sold by March 2012.

Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric


Leasing only

93 mi (150 km)

A total of 209 units have been leased in Europe through October 2012. Since 2011 a total of 149 units have been delivered in Sweden through March 2013.

BYD e6


369,800 RMB

190 mi (310 km)

Sales to the general public began in October, 2011, in Shenzhen, China. A total of 33 units were sold in 2010, 401 during 2011, and cumulative sales in China reached 5,059 units through June 2014.

Bolloré Bluecar


€19,000 (US$24,850) +
€80/mo (US$105)
fee for the battery
(VAT not included)

250 km (160 mi)

Retail sales began in February 2013. Owners can access the Autolib' network of charging stations around Paris for an optional monthly fee of €15 (US$20).

A total of 3,302 units have been registered in France through July 2014, with over 2,000 units deployed for the Autolib' carsharing program. The Bolloré Bluecar was the top selling highway-capable electric car in the French market in 2012.

Ford Focus Electric



76 mi (122 km)

U.S. Deliveries for fleet customers began in December 2011 and to retail customers in May 2012. Initially sales are limited to New York, New Jersey and California. A total of 3,965 units have been delivered in the U.S. through September 2014.

BMW ActiveE


Leasing only
US$499/month for 24 months + US$2,250 downpayment

94 mi (151 km)

Field testing in the U.S. began in January 2012, after the Mini E trial ended. Available only in Los Angeles, New York, San Diego, San Francisco, Sacramento, Boston, and select markets in Connecticut. This is a demonstration program only with no plans for a production version. The ActiveE was followed by mass-production of the BMW i3 electric car. A total of 671 units were leased in the U.S. through September 2013.

Renault Fluence Z.E.


205,000 DKK (€27,496) +
a monthly fee
for the battery

100 mi (160 km)

Since 2010 a total of 3,459 units have been sold worldwide through May 2013, with 2,068 registered in Europe. In France, 725 units have been registered through June 2014. The battery leasing service is provided by Renault.

The Fluence Z.E. was the only electric car deployed within the Better Place network in Israel and Denmark. Less than 1,000 units were deployed in Israel and around 400 units in Denmark through May 2013, when the company filed for bankruptcy.

Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid


US$32,000 (base) to
US$39,525 (advanced)

11 mi (18 km)

As of September 2014, global sales totaled 65,300 units, with the United States as the market leader with 36,680 units delivered, followed by Japan with about 19,100 units, and Europe with around 9,100 units. The leading European markets are the Netherlands with 3,955 units registered as of August 2014, followed by the UK with 1,089 units registered as of March 2014 and Sweden with 1,053 units registered as of September 2014.

Tesla Model S


US$95,400 to US$105,400
US$57,400 to US$77,400

265 mi (426 km)
(model with
85 kWh pack)
208 mi (335 km)
(model with
60 kWh pack)

About 47,000 units have been sold worldwide as of September 2014. Sales are led by the United States with about 31,500 units delivered through September 2014, followed by Norway with 5,518 units, China with about 2,800 units, the Netherlands with 2,150 units registered as of September 2014, and Canada with 1,200 units sold through August 2014.

Honda Fit EV


Leasing only
for 3 years 

82 mi (132 km)

 A total of 1,007 units have been leased in the U.S. through September 2014. In July 2014 Honda announced the end of production of the Fit EV for the 2015 model, together with the Honda Insight hybrid and the Honda FCX Clarity hydrogen fuel-cell car.

The Fit EV was released through leasing to local government and corporate customers in Japan in August 2012. Availability in Japan is limited to 200 units during its first two years.

RAV4 EV second generation



103 mi (166 km)

Produced jointly by Toyota and Tesla Motors. Initial production will be limited to 2,600 units through 2014 and is available only in California. The battery supply deal between Toyota and Tesla is set to conclude by the end of 2014.

A total of 2,255 units have been sold in the U.S. through September 2014.

Ford C-Max Energi



20 mi (32 km)

Over 16,200 units have been sold in North America through September 2014, with 16,014 units delivered in the U.S. through September 2014 and 199 units in Canada through December 2013.

Renault Zoe


(US$27,250) +
a monthly fee for the battery

210 km (130 mi)

 The cost of leasing the battery for 36 months starts from €79/month (US$104/month).

Global sales passed the 10,000 unit milestone in February 2014. As of June 2014, sales are led by France with 7,637 units, followed by Germany with 1,532 units, and the Netherlands with 632 units. Cumulative global sales reached 12,631 units through June 2014.

Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid


~ €50,000
~ GB£40,000

50 km (31 mi)

Over 11,000 units have sold in Europe through May 2014. As of June 2014, sales are led by the Netherlands with 8,231 units, followed by Sweden with 931 units delivered.

Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid



13 mi (21 km)

A total of 835 units have been sold in the U.S. through September 2014. The Accord PHEV was introduced in Japan in June 2013 and it is available only for leasing, primarily to corporations and government agencies. As of December 2013, the Accord PHEV ranks as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the Japanese market.

Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV


¥3,324,000 US$36,650
to ¥4,297,000 (US$47,380)

60 km (37 mi)

As of June 2014, about 33,000 units have been sold worldwide, led by the European market with over 17,235 units. As of August 2014, the largest country market is Japan with 16,518 units sold, followed by the Netherlands, the top European market, with 14,195 units registered, Sweden with 1,692 units, and Norway with 1,092 units by mid-September 2014. The Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in Europe during the first half of 2014.

Roewe E50


CN¥234,900 (US$37,589)

180 km (110 mi)

Available only in China, with 238 units sold in 2012 and 7 units during the first half of 2013. Deliveries began in Shanghai in January 2013.

Ford Fusion Energi


(Feb 2013)

(Jan 2014)

20 mi (32 km)

Released in the U.S. in February 2013.

Over 15,500 units have been sold in North America through September 2014, with 15,412 units delivered in the U.S. through September 2014 and 116 units in Canada through December 2013.

Mahindra e2o


Rs 7.0 lakh
Rs 8.5 lakh

100 km (62 mi)

About 400 units have been sold in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka by mid November 2013.

Chevrolet Spark EV



82 mi (132 km)

 The Spark EV was released in South Korea in October 2013.
1,303 units have been sold in the U.S. market through July 2014.

Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Electric Drive


in Germany

250 km (160 mi)

Limited production. Sales began in Europe in June 2013.

Fiat 500e



87 mi (140 km)

Launched in July 2013, the 500e is initially available only in California. About 1,490 units sold in the U.S. through July 2014.

McLaren P1


(~ US$1,350,000)

19 mi (31 km)

Deliveries to retail customers started in the UK in October 2013. Production is limited to 375 units to maintain exclusivity. The entire production was sold out by mid November 2013.

Volkswagen e-Up!



160 km (99 mi)

A total of 4,952 e-Up! cars have been sold in Europe through June 2014. The market leader is Norway, with 921 units registered through February 2014, followed by the Netherlands with 588 units sold through December 2013.

BMW i3

BEV and
PHEV option

€34,950 (US$46,400)
in Germany
US$42,275 in the U.S.
plus US$3,850
for range-extender option.

130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi)
with range extender
240 to 300 km (150 to 190 mi)

Global sales passed the 10,000 unit milestone in September 2014. Germany is the leading market, with 2,299 units registered through August 2014, followed by the U.S. with 2,082 units delivered up to August 2014, and Norway with 1,536 units registered through August 2014.

Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid


in Germany
in the U.S.

32 km (20 mi)

As of December 2013, a total of 90 units had been delivered in France, 86 units in the United States, 59 in the Netherlands, 14 in Spain, and about 12 in Germany. Cumulative sales in the U.S. reached 698 units through August 2014. Global sales between January and August 2014 totaled over 1,500 units, presenting 9% of all Panamera models sold worldwide.

Kandi EV


Leasing only
US$130 to US$160
per month

120 km (75 mi)

The Kandi EV city car was deployed in 2013 in China as part of the Kandi EV CarShare, an electric car vending machine-like carsharing program in the city of Hangzhou. The car is also available for leasing of between 1 to 3 years. Sales totaled 5,239 units in the first half of 2014.



189,800 rmb

70 km (43 mi)

Since December 2013 cumulative sales in China totaled 9,615 units through September 2014.

Cadillac ELR



35 mi (56 km)

Cumulative sales in North America reached 812 units up to August 2014, with 780 units sold in the U.S. and 32 units in Canada.

BMW Brilliance Zinoro 1E


Leasing only
7,400 RMB
per month

150 km (93 mi)

Only available for leasing in Beijing and Shanghai.

Kia Soul EV


42 million won
( ~US$39,400)
in South Korea
in the U.S.

93 mi (150 km)

Sales in South Korea totaled 218 units through June 2014.

BMW i8


(~ €103,000

37 km (23 mi)(NEDC)
15 mi (24 km) (EPA)

A total of 60 units were delivered in Europe up to June 2014. As of August 2014, registrations in the German market totaled 160 units.

Porsche 918 Spyder



12 mi (19 km)

A total of 4 units have been delivered in the U.S. through July 2014; 3 in the Netherlands up to June 2014; and 2 in Sweden through July 2014.

Volkswagen XL1



50 km (31 mi)

VW expects its diesel-powered PHEV to achieved 0.9 l/100 km (260 mpg-US), becoming the most fuel-efficient car in the world.

Volkswagen e-Golf


in Europe
in the U.S.

130 to 190 km (81 to 118 mi)

Retail deliveries began in Europe in May 2014. U.S sales are slated to start on selected markets in November 2014. A total of 1,358 Volkswagen e-Golf cars have been sold in Europe through August 2014, of which, 925 units were sold in Norway.

Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive



87 mi (140 km)

Deliveries began in the U.S. in July 2014. A total of 92 units have been sold in the U.S. through August 2014.

Audi A3 Sportback e-tron



50 km (31 mi)

Sales across Europe began in August 2014. Retail sales in the U.S. are scheduled to begin in early 2015. The first units were registered in Germany in August 2014. A total of 250 units have been registered in Germany as of September 2014.

Volkswagen Golf GTE



50 km (31 mi)

Market launch in Europe was scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2014. The first units were registered in Germany in August 2014. A total of 89 units have been registered in Germany as of September 2014.

Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid



30 km (19 mi)

Deliveries were scheduled to begin in Europe in September 2014 and early 2015 in the U.S. A total of 17 units have been registered in Germany as of September 2014.

Venucia e30


(~ US$43,705)

160 km (99 mi)

The Venucia e30 is the Chinese manufactured version of the Nissan Leaf, and as such, shares many features of the Leaf, including bodywork, dimensions, and electric-drive specifications. Dongfeng Nissan started pilot projects in Guangzhou, Xiangyang and Dalian in 2013, with a total of 300 rebadged Leafs deployed since local production of the Venucia e30 had not began at the time.

Notes: PHEV: Plug-in hybrid vehicle, BEV: Battery electric vehicle or electric car. (1) Plug-in conversions are not included. (2) Sales price does not reflect any government incentives or tax credits, except where noted. Prices are shown for comparison purposes only. Actual price may vary by country and by dealership.(3) U.S. price (4) US$32,780 is U.S. price, ¥3.76 million (US$40,500) in Japan, €32,839 (US$40,800) in the Netherlands and €34,955 (US$43,400) in Portugal, all before any government incentive and exchange rate as of May 18, 2010.







Alfa Romeo





Armstrong Siddeley

Aston Martin



Austin Healey

Auto Union







Bristol Cars



















Du Pont


Facel Vega





General Motors





Gordon Keeble



Harley Davidson





















Land Rover









Mercedes Benz







Moto Guzzi

MV Augusta


















Rolls Royce


Royal Enfield




















Vanden Plas










Please click on the links above to find out about these famous automotive makers.  If your company is not included and you would like to be listed, please let us know.



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