PATENT APPLICATION 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SERVICING - REFUELING

 

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Nelson was sufficiently advanced with the development of his battery cartridge refueling system and the design of a demonstration racing design to file a patent application in the winter of 1990.  The above letter from the Patent Office confirms receipt of Nelson's application and the date of filing as 21 November 1990. 

The obvious way to promote the performance of cars using his patent applied for, refueling system was to follow in the footsteps of Henry Ford, who also thought to set a land speed record on a frozen lake to draw attention to the performance of his cars.  

Nelson had already constructed a prototype vehicle to demonstrate his patent mechanical joystick control which replaced the usual floor pedals and steering wheel (patent GB2218187)  This car, built around his joystick control was named the 'Borzoi' after the Russian hunting dogs famed for their grace and speed.  The 'Borzoi" was no slouch, topping 175mph in some tests using a 2.8 litre injected V6 petrol engine.  

A patent was finally granted to Nelson for the battery cartridge refueling system in April of 1995 under patent number: GB2253379.html

This patent has now lapsed under the rule that many inventors view as unreasonable, that patents only have a 20 year shelf life. The 20 year time frame is simply not realistic where some technologies are more than that ahead of their time, so will not have any commercial value until the patent has lapsed.

Thus the act of filing a patent is in effect giving away information for free.

If you are an inventor you may wish to consider this and not file, for the protection you are seeking, the state will deprive you of under the present system.  The system needs to be changed to take into account that patents should only start running from when they are first commercially exploited - not from when they are first filed.

 

 

Email:  Email 21st Century Caves  or phone UK:

 

+ 44 (0) 1323 831727

+44 (0) 7842 607865

  

Intelligent Battery Support System

 

 

 

GB2253379 patent extract:

The system includes a quick release battery loading/unloading mechanism using standardised battery-power-pack(s) coupled with an in-vehicle energy management instrument and information exchange system capable of transferring the customer's requirements, identity and energy used to a service station terminal, allowing extended operating range and eliminating delays associated with charging traction batteries in situ. The wheel rim, hub, axle and bearings may incorporate electrical windings, laminations, brushes, magnetic components to make a complete drive motor and such wheel-motors may be provided at the front or the rear or on all wheels. Solar cells for charging the vehicle battery may be incorporated into body panels which attach to a supporting frame on the vehicle.; Recharging may also be by regenerative braking, from an external supply, by an on-board engine-powered generator or by use of a fuel cell. The vehicle may have a suspension system in which the upper or lower wishbone also serves as a spring. A joystick may be provided for controlling the steering, braking and acceleration. The seating arrangement may be 1-2-1 with a central driver and central rear passenger.

 



Title: Comprehensive electric motor road vehicle system

Patent Office: United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (IPO)


Application Number: GB19920000787 19920115

Publication Number: 2253379 (A)

Application Date: 1992-01-15

Publication Date: 1992-09-09


Full Text at United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (IPO)

 

Bibliographic data: GB2253379  (A) ― 1992-09-09

Comprehensive electric motor road vehicle system  

 

Page bookmark GB2253379  (A)  -  Comprehensive electric motor road vehicle system
Inventor(s): KRUSCHANDL NELSON JAMES +
Applicant(s): KRUSCHANDL NELSON JAMES +
Classification:
- international: B60K6/28; B60L11/18; B60S5/06; F02G1/043; F17C11/00; B60K1/04; B60K16/00; B60K7/00; F02B1/04; (IPC1-7): B60K1/00; B60K6/02; B60L11/00; B60L8/00; B62D29/00
- European: B60K6/28; B60K7/00E; B60L11/12D2; B60L11/18L6; B60L11/18L7J10; B60L11/18L7J8; B60L11/18M34D; B60L11/18M36; B60L11/18R4; B60L11/18R8D; B60L11/18R8F; B60L7/18; B60L8/00B; B60S5/06; F02G1/043; F17C11/00D; Y04S30/14
Application number: GB19920000787 19920115 
Priority number(s): GB19920000787 19920115; GB19910003057 19910213
Also published as:
GB2253379  (B)  

 

 


Abstract of  GB2253379  (A)

 

 

Please note that this system in not suitable for the low cost 'Universal' service forecourt

being proposed for worldwide distribution - It was NK's example in 1990

 

 

GB2253379 is referenced by 13 patents and cites 8 patents.

 

 

 

 


 

 

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 1

 

PATENT DESCRIPTION


I, NELSON JAMES KRUSCHANDL, Inventor, of "Oakwood", Lime Park, Church Road, Herstmonceux, East Sussex, in Great Britain, do hereby declare the inventions, for which I pray that a patent may be granted to me, and the methods by which they are to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following description This patent document may be seen as unusual inasmuch as it contains and brings together a number of separately patentable new inventions, which may be used on their own, or in combination with one another, or in combination with any known method of electrically propelling a motor road vehicle.

However, it is the considered viewpoint of the inventor that each of the separate new innovations described in this patent description and the claims following, are associated in such a way as to be bound together by an overriding unity in a Comprehensive Electric Motor Road Vehicle System, (to be known henceforth as the "Wolverine" system) if the system is to be described and enacted in the most useful form/combination(s).This fact in no way diminishes or restricts the uses or applications to which those separable inventions may be put to in the future, and the disclosure by the inventor in this patent specification and this application should in no way restrict and is not in any way shape or form to be taken as restrictive, so far as each separate stage/step of the intellectual development of this present system may be used in the development of electrically powered transport systems, lest the inventor be, in effect, penalised by the state and the patent system for his efforts to make public his progress, as clearly this is the very reason the patent system has been evolved. The disclosure of these inventions is made with the intention that in so doing, he will pass on the benefit of his progress to his fellow man and be rewarded through normal lawful commercial enterprise.

These inventions relate to an electrical drive motor, electrical drive motor cooling system, brake/regenerative-brake application and control and/or power supply/collection and/or power generation arrangement/system and/or a multi-fuel fuel conversion capability and/or a vending system for electrically powered motor road vehicles for use on the public highways as transportation and for transportation where: - a) The drive motor and/or regenerative braking system is constructed as part of (incorporated into) the wheel/hub/axle/brake assembly as an integral part of the wheel/hub/axle, to form a wheel/hub/axle-motor and brake.

b) The wheel/hub/axle-motor and brake assembly or wheel-motor, is cooled by natural airflow over an open motor design; or is cooled by fan assisted airflow through a ducted motor design; or is cooled by heat transfer from the motor components and especially the windings via a heat-conductive paste to a 

 

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finned radiator/heat-sink; or is cooled by circulation of a heat-conducting liquid medium over or through the wheel-motor components.

c) The method of providing power for the electrically powered vehicle is aided by a direct percentage contribution from high efficiency solar power panels converting light to electrical energy while the vehicle is driven, and a percentage contribution which is stored in e) below, when the vehicle is stationary or parked (assuming adequate sunlight conditions in both instances). These solar cells or photovoltaic effect cells can be of the Gallium-arsenide, Cadmium, Silicon, or any other known combination of elements or compounds converting light to electrical energy.

d) The method of providing power for the electrically powered vehicle is aided by a regenerative braking system, providing electrical energy which is stored in e) below, as a contribution or percentage of the total drive power requirement, where/when the main drive motors are switched electrically and/or electronically to a generating/charging mode progressively or in stages, according to brake lever loadings/driver inputs and returned to drive motor mode as demanded by accelerator loadings/driver inputs. Said generated electrical energy being suitably transformed/electrically/electronically upgraded to a value suitable for charging, hence storage in the vehicles 5 power-pack storage battery.

e) The method of providing power for the electrically powered vehicle is by drawing on stored electrical energy from electroreversible cells/batteries of the lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, sodium-sulphur or any other type/combination of secondary cell chemically storing electrical energy. These storage cells being charged by any known method of charging batteries and especially by c) and d) above and h), i), and o) below and the battery bank also serving as a buffer in the system for contribution charging purposes.

f) The method of providing power for the electrically powered vehicle is from a conversion of gasses/liquids/liquid gasses, or dissolved gasses and/or liquid solutions, to electrical energy in a refuellable primary cell or battery of cells or fuel cells, as accompaniment to c), d) and e) above, or as the sole power generator/supply, the system being particularly applied as a small self-contained unit to form a compact generator, the compact generator charging the onboard power-pack(s) to form a hybrid vehicle variant with an alternative fuel source to that normally associated with hybrid (i.e. a petrol-electric vehicle) electric vehicles. The compact generator also being designed for use with the gas fuel of hydrogen contained in the storage medium, as explained in g) below.


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g) The method of storing hydrogen gas for use in a gas fuelled form of fuel (primary) cell in f) above is in the form of a hydride in combination with metal alloys in the form of: pellets, their construction or make up being; porous spongy metal plates; an open celled microcellular slab/block; a wire-wool-stranded mass, all of these metallic forms designed so as to increase the surface area available for reaction with the hydrogen gas. The reactive metal form being encapsulated by or contained in a sealed pressure vessel so as to form a gas or fuel tank from which gas may be drawn when warmed/liberated and fed into the fuel cell reaction chamber.

The method of providing power for extended range use is by using an onboard dynamo/alternator coupled to a small internal combustion engine of the reciprocating (petrol, diesel) or turbine variety, or an external combustion engine of the Stirling engine type (R. Stirling 1816 pat. no. 4,081) to form a compact generator. The compact generator charging the onboard battery power pack(s) in e) above, to form an electric vehicle commonly referred to as a hybrid.

i) The method of providing power for extended range usage is by arranging for the electroreversible storage battery of cells in e) above to be exchangeable by a quick release/loading/unloading mechanism/system so that said battery power-pack(s) that have been exhausted of charge may be exchanged with/for fully charged battery power-pack(s) which also fit dimensionally, use the same loading mechanism and offer similar performance and capacity as a standardised specification battery pack or packs or as a battery store power-pack specifically intended for use by the vehicle so equipped. These standardised/replacement battery store power-packs or specially designed replacement battery store power-packs being made available at roadside vending/charging/service stations.The standardised or specialised battery store power-packs optionally being replaced with a spare pack normally kept and charged at a home base.

j) The method of regulating and controlling power application to the drive motor is by electrical and/or electronic solid-state: switching/pulsing/chopping/amplifying and/or variation/modulation/wave generating/devices circuits, units, systems, means.

k) The method of providing variable tracking or differential effect (where required), is by proportional speeding up, or slowing down, of left or right tracks by taking instructions from the physical position of the steering controls via a sensor/transducer and a direct link with the vehicle speed controllers, and/or alternatively is by an indirect microprocessor/computer electronically controlled motor-wheel speed correction/synchronization/orchestration, and from steering control sensor variation/inputs/demands, and/or

 


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alternatively is by interactive self regulating and compensating circuitry designed to prevent excessive unloaded speeding of any drive motor and further designed to even out the distribution of driver-demanded power between the number of drive motors on an axle.The system also acting as an anti-lock brake skid preventing device.

1) An alternative method of commutation is by using electronic switching of current to the armature windings, back e.m.f. and driver inputs providing essential control inputs to high speed microchip processor(s), enabling high performance applications.

When permanent magnets or self-exciting windings are used as the field, attached in the wheel rim in lower power applications, this method would eliminate carbon brushes from the wheel motor altogether. If powered field windings are required as, for example, in higher output or longer life applications, only slip rings will be required for supply.

m) The method of providing power for the electrically powered vehicle is a combination of a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, 1, n, or o, in any order, quantity or association and/or any other known method of providing or applying electrical motive power to form a practical, comprehensive electric motor-land/road-vehicle system.

n) A method of keeping constructional complications to a minimum and further reducing vehicle weight is by incorporating the battery pack storage, location and quick release/pick-up system into or as part of the chassis' main structural members/components.

o) A method of providing a vehicle with a multi-fuel capability, that is to say the ability to use more than one type of fuel as the source of motive power is by adopting a dimensionally standard loading, securing mechanism with electrical connections also in a dimensionally standard and fixed position in relation to the securing mechanism, so that any form of generator and/or electrical store so designed to comply and be compatible with the dimensional requirements, may be loaded/connected into/onto/with the vehicle power supply circuitry and controls.


HISTORY


The development of an efficient electrically driven motor vehicle has been overshadowed during the past century by progressive improvements to vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The reasons for this are manifold:


ONE - The necessary technology had not, up until now, been available to make an electrically powered vehicle which could compete with its internal combustion rivals on range, performance and practicality.


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As long ago as 1897 Ferdinand Porsche, then under the employ of Ludwig Lohner, was presented with the opportunity to design and build a battery powered car using hub-mounted electric motors. Unfortunately, the range of 32 miles at 9 MPH limited applications of the vehicle known as the "Lohner-Porsche Chaise". Later, in 1901, Porsche developed this theme further by replacing the heavy and cumbersome batteries with a generator unit powered by a Daimler petrol engine. He still used electric motors incorporated in the front wheel hubs and this vehicle known as the 1901 "Lohner-Porsche" achieved a maximum speed of 55 MPH. The 1901 "Lohner-Porsche" was probably the first petrol-electric hybrid in history.

In Great Britain, the Luton firm of E.W. Hart built their "Toujours Contente" and "Presque Contente" models featuring a Lohner-Porsche motor in each hub making them, in all probability, the first four-wheel drive cars. In 1907, Mercedes joined in the race to develop an electric car.

Porsche was commissioned by them to design their "Mercedes-Mixte" model, which was a petrol-electric hybrid.

By any standards the performance attained by these electric vehicles was, at the time, astonishing. The world land speed record, held by Jenatzy 1899., was only 65.79 miles per hour rising to 121.57 MPH in 1906 when the steam powered Stanley Rocket stole the lead. If Porsche had had the knowledge of electronics, solar collectors, steel wheel construction and modern batteries, most of us would now probably be driving around in electrically propelled cars and the internal combustion powered vehicles we take for granted, would have only commercial and perhaps sporting applications. Proof of this statement can be seen in the absence of internal combustion engines in any modern permanent industrial installation. In other words, if electrical power can be made practically available in a given application it is almost always used in preference to other energy sources.One reason for this is the efficiency with which electric machines convert electric power into useful motive power. Commercial generating installations often achieve efficiencies of 98%.

Other factors such as convenience, quietness and cleanliness must also be taken into consideration.

Whilst 1,575 electric vehicles were manufactured in 1900 in the United States compared with only 939 gasoline powered vehicles, the trend was soon to reverse. Electric vehicles were very popular with women because of the difficulties of starting an internal combustion engine with a manual crank.

Then in 1911 the electric self-starter was introduced by Cadillac. Soon other manufacturers incorporated the self-starter onto their piston engined vehicles and that particular problem was solved opening the way for practical everyday use of I.C.E. powered automobiles by the fair sex.

 

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After 1930 production of most electric vehicles had stopped, being regarded largely as museum pieces. One exception was the "Detroit Electric", built by the American Anderson
Electric Car Co., which continued to be produced to special order until 1939.

More recently, and as a direct result of soaring petrol prices and the very real possibility of petrol rationing in the 70s, experimental studies have led to promising EVs being built and tested by, for example, the Electricity Council who evaluated the "Enfield" vehicle in 1973 - 1976. The idea was to use the vehicle for meter-reading duties.

The Electric Power Research Institute (Palo Alto) suggested that a modern day electric vehicle represents a major new revenue source for electric utilities. It has been estimated by them that each vehicle would use the equivalent energy equal to or exceeding that used annually by the average household. This would help solve the problem of power station load management as charging of EVs from domestic supplies would normally be carried out overnight from off-peak supplies.

This practice could mean power stations were able to operate more efficiently and would not necessarily require -any expansion to cope with demand. General Motors are at this time running fleets of essentially overnight charged vehicles ("G" Wagons), in selected city areas for just such evaluation.

Power taken directly from nature as the conversion of sunlight has also been investigated but without any practical form of application. Vehicles running on sunlight only cannot be used all the year round because of unpredictable fluctuations in the weather and presumably the application of "Murphy's Law".

Nevertheless, research has continued apace with vehicles mainly intended as competitors in the Pentax World Solar Challenge, a race across Australia, north to south, from Darwin to Adelaide, a distance of 1,875 miles. Vehicles competing in this race can only be described as thoroughbred out and out racing machines with little or no practical application. For example GMs "Sunraycer" and the Solar Honda are both pure teardrop aerodynamic exercises arranged around the forward seated driver with a massive flattened tail to accommodate a very large solar panel collection area.

However, these developments have proved that electricity from the sun is a very real energy source just waiting to be tapped.

There are two main problems associated with the purchase and running of electrically powered vehicles planned for launch by mainstream manufacturers in the near future. Firstly, state of the art battery developments still allow ranges of only 60 - 150 miles. This limits the market for electric vehicles to those who only use cars for short distances/round trips.

The assumption being that a vehicle will return to a home base where it can be trickle-charged from a domestic electricity supply. Commuters and families wanting to travel longer

 


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distances are not catered for. This is clearly a problem and limits the electrical vehicle as a practical proposition.

Secondly, the replacement price of a new battery pack after approximately three - four years use (20,000 - 40,000 miles), has to be taken into the calculations of total fuelling costs.

This fact detracts from the obvious financial advantages of using a renewable fuel source and is seen to be an obstacle to the economical running of an E.V.

TWO - There has not, before now, been the urgent need for an alternatively fuelled method of transport. In the early days of motor vehicle development oil derived fuels were plentiful, as nobody had then found a volume use for the refined petroleum spirit. It was because of the growing popularity and practicality of the internal combustion engine that a market for the otherwise, unused by-product, was created. The abundant distribution of petroleum deposits in the Earths sub-strata and competition from oil producing countries has kept petrol supplies reasonably priced. Indeed petrol/oil fuels have been taken for granted as a cheap source of energy by most industrial nations and is the device by which economies are kept buoyant. Thoughts of this fuel supply running out seem to have been conveniently filed for later attention.

Exploration for petroleum oil deposits continues expeditiously in order to replace existing wells that are being drained and as a result the price of petrol for transportation is bound to rise. So far, however, any increase has not been sufficiently large to discourage the world's motorists from wasteful journeys and any increases imposed, certainly have never, in real terms, reflected any harmful effects to the planet Earth and/or the cost of cleaning-up, or righting, pollution from oil spills, etc.

Supplies of oil for refining to petroleum are subject to political and other market forces which can seriously damage any governments's attempts at economic planning and stability for their country. In recent times pressure for the continued supply of cheap oil, to meet many countries energy requirements, has caused a situation of international concern in the Middle East. This area can accurately be described at this time as the oil well of the world. Any reduction of dependency on this resource would be a good thing.

In any event, oil is a non-renewable fossil reserve which is due to run out in the near future. There is, therefore, a pressing and long overdue need for the development of an alternative to the internal combustion engine.


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THREE - It has only recently become recognised that emissions from the combustion process could be permanently harmful to world ecology. The burning of hydrocarbon fuels has been associated with extensive world-wide carbon dioxide/monoxide pollution which has been linked with a condition of global warming. Global warming, it is argued, could have dire consequences for the future of the planet Earth and if allowed to continue at its present rate may re-draw the hospitable borders on maps of the future. The internal combustion engine is a major contributor to this pollution, producing about 20% of the greenhouse effect Carbon Dioxide gas, 75% of the poisonous Carbon Monoxide and 50% of the smog forming Hydrocarbons.

In allowing this situation to continue unquestioned, we'are de facto accepting the inevitability of damage to our environment, as the price necessary to be paid for our present and continuing motoring pleasure.

Urban smog caused by fumes from the I.C. engined car has now become such a problem in hot climates that they pose a serious health hazard. Huge yellow clouds hang over Los Angeles on bright days formed by the action of sunlight on Nitrogen Oxides and Hydrocarbons, to form Ozone. Parents quite rightly keep children in on hot days to prevent inhalation of the carcinogenic fumes which give rise to all manner of breathing disorders. This has promted bodies such as the "Clean Air Resources Board" and "South Coast Air Quality Management" in the state of California, U.S.A. to help introduce legislation designed to induce car makers locally and exporters worldwide to manufacture and offer to the public the option of a clean automobile. It must be remembered that worldwide production of vehicles runs to around 130,000 units per day.

Los Angeles is particularly a problem area having a population of some 12,000,000 people driving 8,000,000 vehicles. Probably the highest concentration of vehicles per square mile or per person in the world. Accordingly, this would seem a logical place to start corrective measures and may prove to be a much needed model for the rest of the world to follow. At this time it is recognised that electricity offers the only real solution to clean motoring.

For the above reasons, a system of environmentally harmonious transportation (preferably using renewable energy) is quite clearly a desirable proposition both commercially and ecologically.


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To date, sporadic efforts have been made towards developing alternative forms of transport, mainly by forward thinking research organisations, with a "green" rather than commercial bias. This has led to experimental battery powered vans and cars which require overnight charging from "off peak" mains electricity supplies as their only source of power input.

The race so far has been confined to seeing who could squeeze in the biggest battery pack; this seemingly being the only solution to extending ranges and improving speeds although research into batteries of cells with higher charge densities is helping to reduce the size and weight of those battery packs. The making of power in electricity generating stations, gives us the easier option of centralised pollutant removal/treatment as an interim solution, during the long-term phasing out of old technology.

Some manufacturers have chosen to experiment with alternative renewable fuels that can be used in the internal combustion engine, thus capitalising on the large numbers of vehicles in existence using that system as the prime mover. Recent examples of these alternatives are: Alcohol, Methanol, Propane, Methane and Hydrogen, although there are many others. The case for hydrogen is, on the surface, extremely good. Closer analysis of the conversion chain reveals marked inefficiencies of the system that manufacturers seem prepared to overlook, because hydrogen vehicles can be refuelled in about 15 minutes safely using the hydride pellet storage method if pumped cooling water is used (see Mercedes 310 minibus).

Water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity by electrolysis (hydrogen derived from fossil fuels being very expensive and counter productive). The liberated hydrogen gas is then attached to the metallic sponge pellets (catalyst) in the vehicle's fuel tanks, forming a hydride.

The gas is released from the hydride state by the application of heat from the I.C. engines exhaust pipe. Then the original weakness in the chain becomes apparent, as any internal combustion powered land vehicle can only effectively deliver a miserly 20% of the original fuel energy supplied to it. By contrast, electrically powered land vehicles regularly achieve 70% efficiencies through their drive trains.

The only real drawback being the time taken to refuel/charge the batteries of a conventional electric vehicle - normally 8 to 10 hours.

It is becoming universally realised that fossil fuel reserves ought to be safeguarded for more important tasks where renewable energy sources cannot be used at this time (i.e. travel by flight), or as insurance against a future situation which may prevent us using naturally abundant renewable resources.


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IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS


There is no fully integrated or comprehensive electrically powered vehicle system suitable as a replacement to traditional methods of transport. The systems being developed by manufacturers of motor vehicles at this time are half way, add-on, conversions using existing production vehicle technology, which in no way makes the best use of newly developed advances in technology in a format/system specifically designed from the ground up as a comprehensive electrically powered vehicle system/package. This approach is reflected in the poor performance figures quoted by manufacturers for their first batch of Los Angeles qualifying vehicles.

The main weaknesses in the design of electrically powered vehicles to date are the restriction on range and performance; the result of long refuelling times, without any method or provision for refuelling along the public highways. If the refuelling problem can be overcome, then higher performance will follow and electrically powered vehicles may then offer practical long range motoring.

The other critical area of design and application for attention is the way electrical power from motor machines is brought to the vehicles tyres; that is the efficiency of the drive system.


INNOVATIONS


These present inventions replace and/or incorporate known methods of electrical motivation, energy storage and vending with:- recent technological advances in solar cell, fuel cell, electrochemical storage cells; and/or a new motor/wheel/hub/axle arrangement and control incorporating the latest advances in electric machine/motor design and electronic power control or handling; and/or a new battery-power-pack loading and unloading or refuelling system; and/or a new add-on multi-fuel capability; and/or a new battery-power-pack vending system; and/or a new solar cell deployment, to form a workable and practical electrically powered motor road vehicle and energy supply system, which can either supplement or replace altogether the internal combustion engine powered motor road vehicle.


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METHOD OF INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION


COMBINED WHEEL, HUB, AXLE, BRAKE AND MOTOR DRIVE:


The electrical motor design/make-up of this present Wolverine system, which may include the following components depending upon motor type, A.C., D.C. or hybrid: windings, cores, armature, stator, rotor, commutator, slip-rings, permanent magnets, cages, spiders, brush assemblies, filters, guards and regenerative braking parts, cooling fans, cooling sinks, cooling jacket(s) and any other component normally found/needed in an electric motor machine, are incorporated in'the wheel rim, hub and axle that would normally be found on a conventional vehicle set-up (live or independent axles).

This has the advantages of :1) SAVING WEIGHT - by sharing and combining the uses of basic component parts found in a normal wheel/hub/axle assembly with the motorising electrical components needed to complete the assembly so becoming a motor-wheel/hub/axle or motor-wheel.

For example: - The stub shaft shares the commonality of function with the motor spindle or shaft; The wheel rim shares the commonality of function with the motor casing or yoke; The wheel spokes/central pressing/casting, shares the commonality of function with the motor spider and in some cases, casing; The wheel bearings share the commonality of function with the motor bearings. By this means (method of incorporation), motorising components may be added to a wheel hub assembly adding only 0.5 - 51bs per horsepower output (0.3 - 3kgs per kilowatt) or less, depending on the technology applied, to make a light motorised wheel or wheel-motor.

A standard vehicle (small sedan deployment example) requiring a total of 20kw (26.8HP) output, would require 4 X 5kw wheel motors (all wheel drive) or 2 X 10kw wheel motors (front or rear wheel drive only), assuming a vehicle with four wheels.

Any particular arrangement of drive motor-wheel layout may be decided by production capacity, cost, performance or indeed a multiplicity of applied criteria.


DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR EXAMPLE WITH MECHANICAL COMMUTATOR


To maximise weight savings and eliminate the need for two sets of brushes in a conventional direct current application, i.e.

to supply field and armature windings, it is desirable to use a ring armature fitted in the wheel rim/motor-casing/yoke, to revolve around an arrangement of field windings (with two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or multiples and/or additions of these numbers of poles according to desired motor characteristics) being fixed or located (by splines, pins, pegs, threads, keys or similar) with or without a connecting metal spider, in such a way as to prevent rotation on the stub axle/motor shaft, being a reversal of the way an

 


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electric motor is normally employed, i.e. fixed casing and revolving shaft/armature (the ring armature and central field poles/magnets general arrangement is described in Ferdinand Porsche's patent of 1900 number 18,099 relating to an electric motor forming the hub of a wheel). A hollow spindle/stub axle can then bring current carrying cables to either an outward facing commutator brush arrangement or to the central field windings, depending upon the particular wheel arrangement (see diagrams of design examples).

It will be seen to be advantageous to bring the end wires from the armature coils towards the centre along the spider/spokes/casing/central pressing of the wheel, to give physical support to the wires, then towards a smaller diameter commutator/collector where the wires will terminate in the normal manner by being pressed into a slot and then soldered in position. The commutator brush pick-up assembly is arranged in such a way that it can be taken away from the commutator with or without the wheel and be self relocating.

That is to say, by virtue of radiused edges and a lead in portion of the commutator collectors (usually copper) or before the commutator collectors, the brushes retract into their respective guide slots, preventing the normal jamming caused by sharp changes in profile and aiding assembly.

An alternative design has the brushes coming from inside and making contact against the inside face of a commutator whose collecting metal segments are fitted on the inside of a supporting ring, instead of on the outside as is more usual.

This has the advantage that for tyre servicing purposes the wheel/armature/commutator assembly may be taken from the hub, stator and brush pick-up assembly without having to disconnect the brushes from the electric supply cables.

Direct current brushed machines are considered by some electrical engineers to be out of date and potentially less efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. But there are many advantages to this type of machine stemming from the simplicity of construction, repairability and low-tech control requirements. For example, isolated communities, without sophisticated electronic test/service equipment will be able to effect all servicing requirements that would be almost impossible with the software driven brushless machines described below. Similar long term servicing problems of petrol engined cars equipped with electronic engine management systems are now working their way through the second hand car market, with those electronically equipped vehicles drastically dropping in value and prematurely ending up on the scrap heaps. This is of itself of some environmental concern.


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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED

 


BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR ADVANTAGES


Mechanical commutator switching limits the electromechanical power conversion potential of the d.c. machine. Centrifugal force considerations and the need to clamp onto securely, limit the diameter, rotational speed and length of the commutator, although rotational speeds of 1,000 - 2,500 RPM for wheel diameters of 16 - 30 inches may not present too much of a problem. The desire to limit the thickness of insulation between adjacent commutator segments also introduces design restrictions.

Many of the limitations are mitigated if electronic commutation of the armature coils is applied. One immediate advantage is that the armature winding may then be accommodated on the stator, in this case being secured to the stub-axle/bearing spindle, with consequent easing of the problems relating to insulating and securing the conductors.

The apparent need for slip-rings and brush-gear associated with supplying d.c. exciting current to rotating main-field coils may be avoided by mounting a/the exciting-generator or exciter on the common shaft. Thus, if commutation is achievable without the need for interpoles, a very simple rotor assembly is possible. On some wheel-motor applications permanent-magnet field poles may be employed, also solving the problem. Using the latest rare-earth magnetic compounds very powerful yet lightweight wheel-motors may be constructed.

Electronic commutation eliminates the chance of an arcing brush/commutator contact. Assuming that the controlling semiconductor devices are able to meet the switching duty requirements, overall dimensions are eased and retarding/advancing of the commutator timing to improve the motors flexibility may also be enacted through the same controlling/switching electronics via software. Coil short-circuiting during commutation may also be eliminated using electronic commutation and the number of armature coils normally needed to reduce this short-circuiting to insignificance, may also be reduced to simplify manufacturing and design complications.


ALTERNATING CURRENT OR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR ADVANTAGES


The drive motors may be of the alternating current type, this design of motor being theoretically potentially more efficient in the conversion of electrical energy into motive force. A.C.

motors also promise greater longevity of service, as no commutator or slip rings are required not only reducing complexity but also frictional losses. Speed regulation and power application in this type of motor requires sophisticated electronic circuitry, firstly to generate an alternating supply/wave from the vehicle D.C. batteries and then to regulate that supply by frequency and/or pulse modulation.


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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED

 


It may be argued that the D.C. brushless machine and the A.C. machine described above stray into each other's territory as both are in effect motors without brushes operating from software generated waveforms and this is true. The difference lies in the construction of the machine. For example, whether permanent magnets or induced effect are utilised.

The motor wheel is of course designed with the facility of speedy servicing of wheel bearings, brushes (where used), brakes and tyres. It can be seen from examination of the accompanying drawings that none of the normal wheel and hub servicing requirements are unduly affected. It must be recognised that the system remains advantageous and workable no matter what design/type of electric motor machine is employed in this capacity. Although it may be shown that some designs and types demonstrate greater suitability to the application than others.

It must be emphasised that this present wheel-motor invention relates to the concept of incorporating an electric motor machine within the structure of a modern road wheel/hub/axle assembly and in no way restricts the invention to any particular type or design of electric rotating machine, but by giving example and description of certain types, in particular the D.C. machine by way of the suitability of D.C.

machines to tractive (motor vehicle) applications, endeavours to make it readily apparent to the reader the basic requirements of/for the system to work effectively.

2) DIRECT DRIVE - routing/transmitting power by shafts from a single motor is eliminated and reduction by gears can be cut out of the drive train because of inherent electrical wheel-motor torque characteristics, so improving efficiency and saving more weight. Drive may be distributed to two or four wheels simply by having motor units built into the desired number of wheels. If motor speed down gearing is necessary in a particular (heavy duty truck) application, hub or wheel rim reduction by an epicyclic arrangement would still enjoy a considerable efficiency advantage.

3) FEWER MOVING PARTS - with electronic solid state switching and speed control of the motor only the tyres, shock-absorbers, wheel bearings and commutator brushes (if used) suffer from frictional wear (plus gears if incorporating heavy duty hub/rim reduction). Brake pads and/or shoes would be the only other mechanical item requiring service and as this is also part of the wheel/axle assembly, maintenance of the vehicle, taken as a whole, can be seen to be minimal.


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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED 

 

4) HIGH TORQUE - being improved with large radius field and armature windings, making the most of the available wheel rim space. Additionally, the torque and drive power of each motor/wheel is multiplied by the number of driven or motor-wheels to give the total vehicle drive power and start off torque. In this way four driven wheel units would be the equivalent of a very large and heavy single electric motor, with the advantages that a number of smaller units have an increased surface area giving superior cooling characteristics to the machine for extended longevity and performance, apart from any torque considerations. The winding insulation life-span may be extended beyond 50,000 hours as a result of cumulative advantages and heat sink or liquid cooling techniques.

5) TWO MOTORS IN ONE - the adjustable commutator brush/pick-up unit/assembly allows greater flexibility to be obtained from any fixed winding configuration, by adjusting the commutator timing, effectively tuning the motor to a speed or torque requirement and extending the flexibility that would otherwise be impossible using power control alone.

6) NO DIFFERENTIAL - is necessary with any of the drive arrangements described in normal operating conditions, further simplifying the system. Each motor tending to adjust itself within acceptable limits to the rotation speeds of the other motor(s) for cornering purposes.

If by reason of slippery conditions or loose surfaces, differential effect, or tracking control and monitoring is required, a central microprocessor/computer controlled, multi-channel speed controller can individually regulate and synchronise each separate motor wheel for any particular cornering condition, to optimise grip. To make this work, each motor wheel unit would feed information from inbuilt transducers of load information and r.p.m., to the central control computer/microprocessor. The information received would be compared with what should be happening according to reference information and corrected as required to maintain a stable course. Separate (matched) speed controllers (as channels) will be required for each motor wheel, but it may well be that these separate speed controllers are, by virtue of more readily available component values, just as economical to employ than one large speed controlling circuit.

A different system of self-regulation can be used as a cheaper alternative, possibly being slightly less effective in use as a differential system than the microprocessor controlled system described above and by contrast a direct acting cross linked analogue electrical control circuit, where one wheel motor takes overriding percentage adjustment instructions of power application requirements from the opposing axle wheel-motor, via what is essentially a balanced apportioning system. Apart from any cost consideration this is the system that is likely to be adopted for the mass market because it
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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED is an easier system to implement and is likely to be more reliable in service as it is possible to arrange the electronics to use only one split channel or two lower output channels to give the same end result.

Each motor-wheel has its own speed controller. The speed controllers are initially instructed in parallel equally by the driver operated speed control. If one wheel speeds up in relation to its opposite axle wheel-motor, the current drawn by that unloaded wheel decreases. A rotation speed sensing and regulating circuit keeps each separate motor in % synchronisation with its opposite axle motor, provided there is no change in load of one of the motors. If both motors change loadings at the same time, as when cornering, sensors on each power supply line detect which is drawing more and which is drawing less and provided the changes balance each other within certain limits and the total flow remains essentially equal as when driving the vehicle straight, then each motor will be regulated according to the newly apportioned rotation speed.This has the effect of providing an anti-skidding/overspin device that will keep the vehicle steady on the course steered. The two separate power apportioning channels (one per motor) may be considered/likened to a single axle-channel and divider/balancer/synchroniser as it is posible to implement a single channel speed controller which provides the same effect.

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT:
SOLAR CELL GENERATION
This present Wolverine system provides for collection of energy from nature in the form of light converting photovoltaic cells or solar cells in the following manner:
Solar cells are placed on the vehicle surfaces in such a way as to maximise area and attitude for collection, without interfering with driver sight line or vehicle functional components. Typically, five to ten percent (5 - 10%) of the normal/average running requirement can be supplied directly in this way, requiring three square metres or more of solar cells.

The solar cells charge an onboard electrochemically reversible cell/battery when the vehicle is not in use (assuming an average for sunlight conditions). The solar cells also contribute directly to power requirements when the vehicle is driven.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
When light levels fall below a level where the voltage output of the solar collector components no longer provide any significant input, a circuit inserted into/onto the system for regulation/disconnection purposes breaks electrical contact.

This may be determined by a cadmium sulphide or similar light sensitive resistive grid or other electronic component forming a sensor/transducer, one way switching by diodes, or voltage drop regulated relays. Essentially, this automatic electronic/electrical protection takes over, preventing discharge of the power batteries and damage to the working components. The solar cell panels are also overload and temperature protected in the normal way.

The solar cell panels are incorporated as lightweight structural plastic sandwiches into, or as, the body panels of the vehicle, so forming the body panels of the vehicle.

Design of the shaped panels is kept as simple as possible while conforming with the aerodynamic outline necessary for efficient air penetration by the vehicle form.

It would be an advantage if the combined solar-cells/body-panels were easily detachable for servicing/repair. Some panels on a motor vehicle may be easier to remove than others. A fixed roof panel for example, has to serve as a weather proofing medium and wind deflector in addition to energy collection duties. Sealing of the mounting edges will be paramount to the public acceptance of such a system - we have all grown accustomed to leak proof cars with smooth edges. Thus a mounting system which prevents leaks and provides a sound structural assembly is a must. This may be accomplished with a light plastic or metal frame onto which the solar-body panels fit mechanically and connect electrically.The mating surfaces/edges of the solar-body panel may screw or clip onto the frame, but the important sealing feature is a returned edge in the frame which doubles back under a fixed panel to form a channel which collects and funnels water away from the mating surfaces, so acting as a built-in drainage system. Panels such as doors, bonnet and boot do not of course require much modification. However, it must be noted that commonplace everyday vehicles already have lips, channels, gutters and drains built into the design of the vehicle for just such weather proofing and that these edges often form the structural joins of a unitary design. Recent trends have seen the removal of external edges, seams or lips in the interests of good airflow management.

Conversion efficiencies of solar cells at this time vary between 8 - 16% depending upon the type, materials used and construction. With solar isolation of 1kW/Msq (bright sunlight) and isolation in Great Britain of only 125W/Msq (averaged over 8760 hours/year) This equates to between 10 - 20 watts output per square metre respectively.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Multiply an output efficiency of 8% X 3Msq X 8760 hours and an average energy contribution per car per year = 30 watts X 3 X 8760 = 262.8 kW/hrs. Now divide 262.8 kW/hrs by 15 to gain the number of fully charged battery-packs @ 120 mile range = 17.52 X 120 giving a total yearly (annual) contribution from the sun of 2102.4 motoring miles (21%).

The battery store from a battery powered electric vehicle provides the perfect temporary store to complement solar assistance and make the system work. A car equipped as per this example will save fuel costs of 39.74 per year @ 1.89 pence per mile (average) on an electric vehicle, or 126.14 per year (average) on a petrol powered car equivalent (battery charge efficiency @ 90% overall has not been worked into the above calculations).

The very latest developments in thin-film and plated manufacturing techniques have led to lightweight high-power cells which when incorporated as purpose built body-panels, in the sandwich construction described, need not weigh more than just the body panel alone (requiring no rustproofing) in a conventional steel bodied automobile. If that is the case, there will be no undue weight penalty imposed by equipping a vehicle with solar-body panel collectors, only the drawback of additional expense.

The cost of producing solar-body panels may be reduced using sealed acrylic plastic (or other transparent plastic material) in place of high transmisivity glass, the loss of transmission efficiency being more than made up for by the reduction of cost per unit and associated manufacturing difficulty.

Costs of producing solar panels on the scale needed for automobile manufacture may be cut by as much as 70%, especially with the new plated method of manufacture. The reason solar panels are so costly at this time is literally because of the specialist market. For example, calculators powered by high-power solar panels may cost X pounds for a basic model. Earlier battery powered calculators would have cost the same, but the cost of purchasing new batteries would probably have cost half the price of the original item and will need replacing again and again on a regular basis.

Because the solar panel has been included in the manufacturing process of the calculator, the price of the solar panel included has dropped dramatically. The problem is only one of scale.

Using this method of solar energy collection and control, energy can be supplied by direct onboard sunlight conversion to annually cover 20 - 40% of an estimated average mileage of 10,000 miles, i.e. the equivalent of 2,000 - 4,000 free motoring miles every year. The remainder can be topped up by fixed/stationary external collectors or mains electricity
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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED exchanges when the vehicle is at its home base, or any overnight charging station. Spare packs can continuously charge at home and in addition to collecting and charging from onboard vehicle and domestic electricity supplies or roof mounted domestic collectors, power-packs can be exchanged at a charging station.Additionally, either of the optional compact generators described below will allow the use of another fuel type, adding greatly to the versatility of the system.

ELECTROCHEMICALLY REVERSIBLE BATTERY OR POWER-PACK STORAGE
The power-pack battery bank or electrical store of this present Wolverine system must be of sufficient size/capacity to give realistic vehicle ranges for commuting and other medium range operation when weather conditions are unfavourable and prevent useful contribution from the solar collectors. The battery store and continuous output rating must also be adequate to sustain motorway endurance over the distance. Realistic ranges will vary according to intended vehicle use/application, but can be taken for the purpose of giving a specific example as being between 50 and 300 miles.

This will require the very latest storage cells giving high density charge ratios. Approximate figures have been calculated as being between 400 - 1,000 pounds in weight and 3 - 7.5 cubic feet in size, depending upon the electrochemical properties of the battery cells being used and the applicable vehicle format. These example specifications should provide between 8,000 and 45,000 usable watt/hours, again depending upon the type of storage cells being used. Multiples of these specifications would need to be applied for heavier duty or higher performance vehicles. Development work on storage cells may in the near future upgrade power to weight ratios, especially the sodium sulphur beta cell being developed by the Chloride Group.

Provision is made within this present Wolverine system for smaller separate battery store(s) to be contained within the vehicle structure for the purpose of supplying a reserve, auxiliary or emergency energy bank/store. The reserve batteries are also to be used for powering/manoeuvering a/the vehicle at times of servicing/loading/refuelling when the main power batteries have been unloaded/disconnected.

Because of the requirement for a separate onboard store or reserve of electrical energy, the reserve or auxiliary batteries are an essential part of the system and will obviate the need for temporary external connection(s) or other manouvering arrangements.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
MAINS ELECTRICITY CHARGING
This present Wolverine system incorporates and caters/allows for overnight charging from domestic mains electricity supplies to bring the accumulative battery of cells up to full capacity from, maybe discount metered supply companies.

Or on a solar assisted vehicle setup, when overcast weather conditions may prevent solar charging or where longer range use has exhausted the vehicles batteries and time shortage dictates the need for this extra input.

The mains charging facility is well known. Sophisticated charging equipment is available giving printouts of charging information, warning of battery condition and automaticoperation of tapered charging cycles specifically programmed for a particular battery type. At least four vehicle manufacturers use the technology on cars that are offered for sale to the public at this time. The reason these cars are not more popular is that direct mains charging alone severely restricts the uses to which the vehicle so tied may be put.

Mains charging is a slow process as the current state of the art persists, taking between eight and twelve hours-in most cases to fully refuel/charge a battery bank. The time-swop or time-management possible with an exchangeable battery-power-pack, as described below, is what makes this present Wolverine system a workable and practical system.

Time management is a concept that has been recently accepted on a world scale via the technology of the videotape recorder equipped with a timer. A person may take advantage of the videocassette tape storage medium to store recorded broadcast material when he/she is not at home to watch the item, and by so doing manage broadcasting times to suit his/herself. The principle is much the same as taking electricity at a time of greater economy, to suit yourself and also shifting charging timespans to suit yourself. In effect you will be storing energy and time. Time is irreplaceable.

Enquiries of supply companies into the laws and conditions covering distribution of electricity in Great Britain suggest that there is scope for independents to supply there own electricity via the National Grid at about half the price of the domestic supply rate, currently 7.35 pence per kw/hr unit, tax free. Unfortunately, VAT or it's equivalent tax will almost certainly be added by an enthusiastic Chancellor of the Exchequer on top of the Fossil Fuel Levy (11%) already imposed on electricity generating companies and passed down the line. Yet there is no pollution tax on petrol engined vehicles.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Despite any obvious political hinderances there remains a lot of scope for a specialist pioneer supply company to A) offer value for money against the present electricity supply networks B) open up new profitable markets where traditional suppliers would not bother and C) further reduce the price of electric motoring for the consumer.

In effect the battery-power-packs of the growing numbers of electric vehicles will form a gigantic mobile energy store or load levelling device for power generating stations - at no cost to those utilities. It has also been calculated that by storing energy from overnight generated electricity power stations will be able to operate more efficiently by making better use of their plant. Additionally, because the bulk of this extra generated electricity is made off peak, there should be no problems associated with overloading of the existing grid network as has been argued. It is all a question of management.

INSTRUMENTATION AND BATTERY PROTECTION
Because of the investment in a battery power-pack it is necessary to maintain that pack or packs in the best possible state of charge or operating condition in order to prolong the working life-span or number of efficient charging cycles. For example it is well known that even especially designed deep discharge traction batteries should not be drained below a working threshhold where cell damage will occur. It follows that in almost every storage cell type certain conditions must be satisfied to protect the battery of cells.

Most vehicle operators will not be familiar with battery requirements and so at least basic automatic warning or other protection should be provided/included. It is essential that at least a visible or audible warning be given to a vehicle operator, when the vehicle's batteries are in a poor condition.

A more comprehensive/versatile warning device would be a gauge or LED or preferably also an LCD display with or without audible signal accompaniment which would show stored charge and warn when overnight charging is necessary and alert the user as to any other precautionary steps to take and/or confirm what action is advised. The same information gathering and processing electrical and electronic package may also form an information display instrument or gauge doubling as a battery condition indicator and energy remaining or fuel-gauge, when the vehicle is in use, and the information of remaining charge also used for corrective/adjustment purposes in any power-pack(s)/financial exchange(s) transaction(s). In this way vehicles parked with drained battery cells may be avoided, and battery-pack exchanges regulated.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
This present Wolverine system includes for such an instrument or warning aparatus one example of which follows:
The instrument hardware forming the heart of the system is/are an electronic kilowatt/hour measuring device and display and a battery charge/condition measuring device and display, capable of working with normal vehicle voltages, e.g. 50 - 500 volts plus or minus 10%. Both of which may form part of the vehicles normally required instrumentation, although the displays should be clearly distinguishable to avoid confusion. (These electronic/electrical measuring devices and displays being the equivalent of a petrol tank fuel gauge and fuel flow meter on a petrol fuelled internal combustion engine driven vehicle).There should be a separate battery condition display so that the vehicle operator knows the state of charge of the battery pack onboard in addition to the number of watt/hours used. The reason for this, is that the battery capacity may vary with battery type/configuration as higher capacity packs are inevitably developed and each pack (although of standard configuration dimensionally) will have different safety threshholds if the batteries are to be maintained in good condition.

The instrument should have it's own memory back-up battery which cuts in should there be any interruption of the vehicle supply. The back-up charges itself automatically from freshly exchanged packs, or when outside battery charging (mains) is under way. The instrument may be assembled from standard commercial electronic microchip components of 5 - 35 volts, and use dc-dc and voltage sensing techniques and regulation to ensure low current drain, low leakage and continued operation in isolation from long periods of non-use and between battery exchanges. Some environment- hardening may be required.

The instrument may also operate at a higher level as an automatic warning device for a number of possible errors or longer term problem areas associated with wear, etc. LCD or other on screen messages or warning lights give advice to the vehicle operator such as: "low battery please charge or exchange"; "defective battery pack - return to vendor"; "poor connection between battery and vehicle drop and reload"; "check condition of terminals".

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Each time a discharged battery-power-pack is exchanged for a freshly charged replacement at a roadside forecourt/vendor (as in INSTANT CHARGING OR REFUELLING; POWER-PACK FORECOURT
MECHANISED VENDING and BATTERY RENTAL SYSTEM headed sections below) the following information will have to be exchanged: a) energy used b) validity of battery number and hire agreement c) credit check and monetary adjustment. The onboard instrument/processing system may also check the battery coded type, serial number and log the time, place and location the exchange took place together with the ammounts credited/debited.It may be desireable to include a printout in-car (useful for checking accuracy of statements from the battery and electricity supply companies), but this function, being more expensive, may only be seen as an accessory on upper range models as a printout can be ordered from any forecourt terminal. After an exchange the kw/hr meter resets to zero and the kw/hrs used on that exchange is then carried forward only in the memory.

Having exchanged a battery-pack, a typical display might look something like this:
ACCoUNT NUMBER10000001010 EXCHANGE NUMBER 062
OWN UNITS 1,421.66 EXCHANGE UNITS 1,858.23
OWN UNITS THIS EXCHANGE 1 0 . 60 UNITS THIS EXCHANGE 28.23
BATTERY CONDITION *** 5% *** MILES TRAVELLED 13,119.48
REGENEKATED UNITS 131 18 REGEN UNITS THIS BGE 0. 60
It follows from the above display example that the instrument will also have to switch from measuring units used to units input while home charging, a role reversal, then store the units supplied in a memory for later use.The own supplied units will be deducted at the next exchange, so that the user only pays the battery supply company for the energy they have supplied. Battery rental is a separate billing, but the battery rental company will need access to information of how the customer is using their battery-packs. The above display example shows that this customer needs to refuel urgently and that their total fuel bill @ 7.0 pence and 8.0 pence per unit respectively (own - exchange) is 248.1 68 equalling a cost of 1.89 pence per mile excluding battery hire. A 30kw/hr pack is used in this example and 120 miles is assumed as the range per full charge (sports car example).

Battery depreciation can at this time only be estimated from information supplied by manufacturers seriously intending to produce small batches of high specification cell assemblies.

A conservative example of a sodium sulphur pack based on general budget estimates gives the cost of a 15kw/hr pack @ 100 per kw/hr as 1,500. This pack will give 2,000 deep
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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED discharge cycles, 400 of which may be from cold without damage. Thus 2,000 X 120 mile range = 240,000 miles.

1,500 divided by 240,000 miles = .625 pence per mile. Add the 1.89 pence for recharging to the battery depreciation figure of .625 pence = 2.515 pence. Then allow an extra penny per mile for the battery supply company = 3.515 pence per mile. So on cost alone electric motoring makes sense, being 2.913 pence per mile cheaper than (or almost 50% of) the average 6.428 pence per mile for a petrol powered car (Battery charging efficiency taken as being 90% overall has not been worked into the above calculations, neither is servicing included in any example).

An electrical pulse triggered by or linked to wheel rotation via a counter acts as a speedometer and odometer. This technique is well known. By cross referencing the miles traveled, energy economy in miles per kilowatt hour may be calculated and displayed. Likewise a running total may be memory stored (or the calculation made from memory stored information when requested).

The onboard instrument must be able to transfer information to a/the forecourt terminal. A simple way to achieve this would be by transferring battery exchange information via a magnetic strip on a plastic (credit type) card. A card of this type may double as user identification and one will be issued with every battery hire agreement period - initially thought to be for periods of one year.

Some method of detecting unauthorised or expired cards must be built into the system. This may be achieved by updating the database held at each forecourt terminal or by direct link comparison.

FUEL CELL GENERATOR/CONVERTER (hybrid)
This present Wolverine system provides that additional power for long range use may be supplied by a/an onboard fuel cell converter(s), converting hydrogen or any other convenient convertible fuel in gaseous or liquid form. The fuel cell conversion need only be required for extended range operation and it must be remembered that where solar collector panels are fitted solar assistance is always contributing to the vehicle power requirements when sunlight is available - thus on average increasing vehicle performance overall. Because of the increased cost of a fuel cell converter and possibly complicated (cryogenic tank) storage system, vehicles used mainly for domestic duties need not include this power source in their original specification, much reducing cost and complexity. However, it should be made possible in the initial design to add-on a Fuel Cell Generator at a later date/time.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
To make it possible to realise the option of having the vehicle fitted with a Fuel-Cell-Generator and at the same time increase the flexibility of the vehicle format, the
Fuel-Cell-Generator/converter should be made as small and as light as possible commensurate with the required power output for any particular vehicle application, 500 - 3,000 watts being the range given by way of example. It should be sufficiently compact and lightweight (50 - 100 lbs) to enable a person of average strength to be able to carry it from the/a house to the/a car without straining unduly, so making the
Fuel-Cell-Generator portable. The position where the
Fuel-Cell-Generator is physically locked on/into and connected electrically, should be of a standard layout.By this it is meant the locking clips should be placed logically and in the same position and spacing as in other vehicles using the
Wolverine system/format. The interface support mountings and the insulated electrical connections should also be in a standard position/situation with respect to the locking mechanism and likely location in the vehicle. It must be recognised that the location within the vehicle may be logically changed according to intended vehicle type/use. The
Fuel-Cell-Generator may also have an integral storage tank, or a larger separate tank, bearing in mind the safety storage requirements for this kind of fuel system and this also should have mountings and connections of a standardised format.

INTERNAL & EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE GENERATION (hybrid)
This present Wolverine system provides for a compact generator formed by the close coupling of a lightweight petrol/diesel/alcohol or other fuelled internal or external combustion engine and an alternator/dynamo which may be used to provide a constant supply or pre-set options of output in the order of 500 to 3,000 watts. The generator assembly is/should be designed to be easy to carry by one person (less than 100 pounds, ideally less than 50 pounds) and is either equipped with an integral fuel tank or a reserve/holding tank and a separate fuel tank of a larger capacity.

The motor of the generator should be designed to run at a constant speed; a speed at which it more/most efficiently converts fuel via the generating electrical machine to which it is attached, into electrical energy. The compact generator is located in a position on the vehicle (such as in the boot or under the bonnet) so as to be easy to load and unload. It will be desirable if the action of loading onto the vehicle also plugged/connected the unit to the vehicles1 electric supply/store/control-electrics/electronics.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
When the compact generator is fitted to the vehicle it would have the effect of turning the vehicle into a hybrid, and give the vehicle the flexibility to run on an additional fuel source in an emergency. It is intended that the portable generating unit would not normally be used on day to day or commuting trips, but only be taken/added to the vehicle for longer journeys or maybe used in locations overseas where charging stations may not be so readily available and local fuel supplies are all that is available.

The compact generating unit may or may not be equipped with self starting motors and may or may not be equipped with a manual pull-type cord starter, both options depending on intended application and the degree of civilisation at the place of operation. The compact generating unit should also have the standardised detachable layout described for the
Fuel-Cell-Generator unit above and should be interchangeable with that unit, using the same physical securing mechanism and the same electrical connections. Having the two different electricity generating modules interchangeable in this fashion, endows the vehicle with a multi-fuel-capacity, giving the vehicle operator wider choices and fuel options.

INSTANT CHARGING OR REFUELLING
An alternative method of instant charge (refuelling), and by far the most desireable direction in which development should head, is to unload the discharged battery pack(s) and connect up a fully charged pack or packs of similar/identical specification, by exchange. This will be possible only if battery sizes were to be standardised for each vehicle class and a quick release connecting mechanism were adopted for the battery packs.

A roadside charging station would either recharge the exhausted pack using on site stationary collectors or mains supplies, or hold stocks delivered by charging farms/factories. Each battery pack would be age certified and credit/debit adjustment applied to a customer who accepted a power pack with a different certified age. Thus compensating for times when as a customer you might be obliged to accept a superior or inferior age battery pack.

This assumes ownership of the power-pack by the vehicle operator.

It is thought that the system would average out and that after an initial familiarisation/try-out period, a system of battery pack rental plus fees for each exchange, would be adopted/established by manufacturers or entrepreneurs operating charging stations.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE-SYSTEM. Page 27
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
This present Wolverine system provides a method of quick battery pack change-over/exchange/refuelling an example of which is: where a driver pulls into a Charging Station's forecourt and positions the vehicle approximately according to guide markers provided on the forecourt surface or elsewhere. From inside the vehicle the driver pushes a button, releases a lever, winds a handle winder down or instructs an electrically powered unloading mechanism or any other hydraulically or pneumatically operated mechanical mechanism, thus initiating the disconnection and lowering of the vehicles main power-pack.The driver then drives/pulls the vehicle forward into another area, over and onto a fresh battery power-pack supplied by the/a vendor and for this process/purpose auxiliary/reserve batteries are provided in the vehicle design, as described earlier. This loading system favours a long thin centrally placed battery assembly, running the length of the vehicle, fitting into a tunnel that need not be much bigger than the propellor-shaft central tunnel (7"x9") associated with traditional front engined, rear wheel drive automobiles. The tunnel is incorporated into the vehicle as part of the structural chassis/frame/body construction. A gentle bell-mouth lead in to the central storage area/channel forms a guideway and is constructed as part of the vehicle (bumper) to form a foolproof loading system.The driver continues driving slowly forward on auxiliary/reserve power until solid contact is indicated by a clunk, buzzer or by the illumination of a warning light. The new power-pack is then secured and connected to the vehicles circuits using the reverse action to the unloading procedure. This action also lifts the power-pack up into the central tunnel storage/holding bay, a distance of approximately six inches (more on commercial or off-road vehicles). Connection of the power-pack is ensured by large insulated safety pins or other shaped connections also with built in foolproof features, to prevent the accidental loading of a power-pack the wrong way round and any hazard of electrical contact.

This particular longitudinal drive over system does not require heavy investment in the refuelling station forecourt area and is seen to be ideal for use in countries requiring minimum start-up costs and is also seen as an ideal interim system until public acceptance of electrical vehicles has once again been gained. As a bonus, the driver never actually has to get out of the vehicle to refuel, which may be useful in inclement weather.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
POWER-PACK FORECOURT MECHANISED VENDING
Power loading or mechanised powered vending systems where power-packs can be unloaded and replaced from any direction; side, front, rear or underneath, make it possible for vehicle designs to be every bit as flexible as vehicles using internal combustion engines. This present Wolverine system includes for such powered loading of traction batteries one example of which is given in the following example:
The power-packs loaded by a mechanised vending system can be situated in locations that the drive over loading system could not work because of space or other considerations.Slightly raised steel rails, where a driver drives between the rails and stops when making contact with another steel bar placed temporarily ahead of the vehicle is a system of ensuring positioning the car within acceptable limits. Warning/guide visual and audible signals, instruct the driver as to vehicle position acceptability. When the vehicle is positioned correctly, the driver is signalled to stop. A loading arm coming from within a sub-surface pit/room approaches from underneath the vehicle, locates and demounts the battery-power-pack via a quick release and foolproof catch or securing/connecting mechanism and carries the discharged battery-power-pack, to be exchanged, away to a store.Another loading arm coming from the other side of the pit area, carries out the reverse operation by loading the vehicle with a fully charged battery-power-pack, securing and connecting the battery-power-pack in the same sequence. The fully charged battery-power-packs are drawn from a store fed to the loading arm and this complete loading sequence is described as either a cross-flow or a transverse-flow system.

Longitudinal-flow systems can be made to work with equal efficiency and the description of the transverse-flow system given here is only to be taken as an example of how the system may be applied in a given situation and not to be taken as definitive or in any way limiting to the application of the invention. Additionally, a fully automatic mechanised vending system using slot machine technology will ultimately lead to unmanned 24 hour refuelling stations.

Twenty-four hour or automatic vending forecourts/service stations will need to (should) be able to accept a variety of different methods of currency exchange. As credit cards and direct currency transfer cards and token exchanges are already becoming increasingly used by the public, this would seem to be a logical path to take.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
The mechanised or automatic loading system may be implemented in a variety of mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically actuated combinations. Automatic vending machines are well known in a number of product applications: cigarettes, chocolate bars, hot drinks, jukeboxes and cashpoint card machines and car washes, to name but a few.

Because of the unique unit transfer arrangement of battery-power-packs for some form/token of monetary exchange, an automatic or 24 hour vending machine (franchise) operator will require only to ensure his/her forecourt machinery is supplied with charged power-packs and arrange for the discharged power-packs taken in/by exchange to be re-charged.

Care will have to be taken in the design and placing of the battery power-packs within the vehicle design. The power-pack itself will represent a substantial investment to the vehicle purchaser, hirer, vendor or whoever else has an interest in the battery-power-pack(s), i.e. the owner or, in the event of an insurance claim, the insurance company. Therefore, maximum protection from accident damage should be allowed for. At this time it is thought a central location, low down in the vehicle or coming from underneath, would be the safest option.

This conclusion is draw from the frequency of front and rear end collisions statistically shown as being by far the greater proportion of common contact damage.

BATTERY RENTAL SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC SERVICE STATIONS
A customer using an electric vehicle equipped with this present Wolverine system of instant power-pack refuelling need never purchase outright a battery power-pack, but could optionally rent a power-pack from a franchise operator; that is a person, partnership or company who makes it his/her/their business to rent, lease or hire-out battery power-packs in such a way as to make a profit in a business-like way, as a business. At yearly or other appropriate intervals the rental agreement would be renewed for a sum, to cover administration costs. Each time a battery pack is exchanged for a fully charged replacement, a service charge is made. The service charge carries a proportion for depreciation, charging, handling and a margin for profitable operation by the vendor or franchisee.In this manner the vehicle user only actually pays for the mileage he/she covers and never has to lay out a large lump sum at an inconvenient time.

A system of registered users, where at the time a rental agreement is taken out on a battery-power-pack, the person taking out the agreement is automatically entered into a database and is then given an identifying code contained in the form of a magnetic-strip and possibly attached to a plastic (credit type) card, or the battery-power-pack, or the vehicle itself, for the purpose of forecourt/vending station identification, may be introduced. The vehicle operator may
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 30
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED then be identified by inserting the card into a terminal, or by identification of the vehicle or battery-power-pack. After verification and validity has been established the driver/operator may then key in instructions as to his refuelling requirements.The new transaction would be recorded and the customer debited automatically. A partially discharged battery-power-pack will have the remaining charge recorded and a credit adjustment automatically made against the charge levied for the replacement battery-power-pack.

This system of adjustment applied to each exchange of battery-power-packs will ensure electrical energy that has been previously paid for, will be carried forward and the vehicle operator will not lose by early exchange, when, for example, the battery-power-pack is getting low and a convenient service establishment is to hand.

From the point of view of the service station company, every transaction on their forecourt(s) will have to be recorded to ensure efficient stock control, customer billing and other associated procedures. As in a bank terminal customers will also benefit from access to information of their own account, hence usage and current state of affairs. A limit will be applied to each customer automatically and this will be agreed subject to status at the inception of any hire agreement. The terminal will not release battery packs if the credit limit has been reached. The only way to overcome this condition will be for the customer to make fresh payment into his/her account of sufficient ammount to allow future exchanges.

A forecourt terminal will require a read/write card swipe or insertion slot much the same as the onboard vehicle battery-management-instrument. Early developments could be based on Personal Computer hardware being economically available. In a PC based terminal the most expensive part of the system would probably consist of the operating software.

Future developments will require the system to accept payment cards, or on instruction after Personal Identification Number (PIN) keying, transfer funds from one type of account to the battery account. Because of the number of options open for future trading and the not-knowing in which direction development will go, an expansion facility must be built in to cover the eventuality. This may take the form of plug in slots as on a PC, or link up with a Bank style/type clearing system.

An alternative method of transfering information, from the in car Battery-Management-Instrument to a forecourt terminal, of energy used, would be to use a short range radio link.

Customers would still be issued with some form of identification card, as described above (or other identifying medium) but the card (or other medium) would only need to be inserted into the dashboard mounted instrument. The card (or other device) could thus act as a security key either
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 31
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED supplanting or supplementing the conventional type of tumbler lock ignition key used on petrol powered vehicles. The vehicle operator/user would then key into the instrument keypad instructions of his/her requirements. Verification and credit exchanges would take place as previously described using a radio link and decoder instead of the magnetic storage/transfer medium.

Difficulties may arise if, for example, a vehicle operator/owner were to purchase a power-pack outright. The operator/owner in this instance might be hesitant in exchanging his/her new power-pack for one supplied by a roadside vendor, which may be half way through its useful life, in'so doing he/she will be losing on his/her investment.

Because of this problem eventually surfacing, it is advised that a customer purchasing an electric vehicle equipped with the Wolverine loading/refuelling system would rather take out a rental agreement at the time of purchase. The only time this might not be practical is when the vehicle is to be used in a remote area, maybe where no roadside vendor/charging stations have yet been installed. Even in this set of circumstances it may be possible for a person with a privately owned pack, to later join the rental system after age and value assessment of his/her battery-power-pack, when the rental company would purchase the privately owned pack at the time a rental agreement was taken out.

It must be emphasised that this present battery-refuelling/loading/unloading invention relates to the concept of incorporating a quick-release battery-power-pack loading and unloading mechanism/system into/onto a motor road vehicle for the purpose of convenient and speedy refuelling from roadside vendors/service-stations and in no way restricts the invention to any particular loading/unloading/connecting type, design or method and/or any particular capacity, output, format, size or shape of battery-power-pack, but by giving example and description of certain types and methods, in particular the Longitudinal-Tunnel-System, by way of the suitability of that system, for rapid incorporation/more easy adaption, into/onto current motor road vehicle designs, endeavours to make it readilly apparent to the reader the basic requirements of/for the system to work.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
KEY TO PATENT DIAGRAMS:
Ldngitudinal Battery-Power-Pack Loading System
Example in Small Sedan Hatchback - U
Illustrating a small four seat/door hatchback with loaded battery-power-pack shown shaded in cross hatching. The vehicle is equipped with four small wheel-motors and transverse springs as per "B" suspension example under:
Vehicle Mechanics and Structure, allowing a greater ratio of internal room/flexibility to external dimensions.

A. Bell mouth guideway
Longitudinal Battery-Power-Pack in High Power
Sports Car Example - Fig.2
Illustrating a high performance two seat coupe where the driving motors, one per wheel - four wheel drive, are not incorporated in the wheels of the vehicle. Instead, because of unsprung-weight considerations the motors are bolted onto the chassis and conventional drive shafts are then used to transmit rotational power to each wheel. The longitudinal battery-power-pack is shown shaded in cross hatching and the motors by solid shading.

A. Drive motors
Conveyor Belt and Arm Loading System Example - 3
Illustrating a two-way conveyor-belt storage, charging and supply system, where the direction of flow reverses after every complete charging cycle. Right to left flow shown where one conveyor line is equal to one conventional petrol pump of a petrol filling station.

1. 1200mm x 482mm x 76mm Battery-power-packs.

2. Left charging rack-stack of 66 spaces.

3. Right charging rack-stack of 66 spaces.

4. Electro-pneumatic two-way ram system.

5. Forecourt service terminal.

6. Conveyor belts.

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PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Block Circuit Diagram Example of Electric-Differential,
Regenerative-Braking, Solar-Charging and Add-On Charging
- Fig 4 1. Driver inputs.

2. Battery-power-pack.

3. Auxiliary battery.

4. Drive motor (d.c. series wound).

5. Charge controller/regulator.

6. D.C. to D.C. converter.

7. Mains socket & rectification.

8. Solar cells or solar-body-panels.

9. Portable generator (hybrid) connector.

ia. Speed controllers in analogue differential circuit.

11. Rotation speed sensors.

12. Battery management instrument & information
exchange/store unit.

D. & R. Drive and regenerative braking switching
P. & C. Auxiliary battery switching
A. & B. Mains and hybrid generator switching
Direct Current and Brushless/Synchronous
Motor-Wheel Examples - Figs
Illustrating two methods of incorporating electric motor machine components within or as part of a wheel and hub assembly. The direct current, or brushed machine (top), shows a Ring Armature layout with an inward facing commutator and central field poles. The stationery central armature of the synchronous machine (lower) requires external switching or waveform generation to drive the rotating ring field poles which may be permanent-magnet; induced cage; or wound electromagnetic cores (the later requiring brushes and slip rings).In each diagram a central spider is located by splines onto the stub axle of the vehicle, this method of location being suitable for brushed commutator and synchronous machines. Contracting band braking components are shown on the d.c. wheel-motor and disc components on the synchronous wheel-motor.

1. Wheel central pressing/casting/spokes.

2. Hollow stub axle carrying supply cables to brush
pick-ups.

3. Hydraulic connections to braking circuit.

4. Magnetic cores.

5. Armature supply cables.

6. Permanent magnet field poles or self exciting field
windings.

7. Contracting band hub brake system.

8. Central spider.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 34
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Within present day Great Britain, electric vehicles are not required to contribute to any Road Fund. Under the Vehicle
Excise Act, 1971., they are exempt and require no license.

No duty is payable on electricity supplies used for transportation either and it would be difficult to introduce any system which taxes energy for whatever purpose, that is collected free from nature. Unfortunately, it would seem reasonable to expect that this happy state of affairs will not continue indefinitely and any interim advantage should be taken as a temporary bonus. The powers that be, will almost certainly require to change the rules/law once the numbers of electric vehicle users become large enough to contribute to road surface erosion. It must be remembered that the very reason for this state of the law, was/is to promote more widespread use of electric vehicles throughout the land.

Laws relating to electric vehicle usage vary from country to country and the laws pertaining in Great Britain at this time are only given as historical reference.

VEHICLE MECHANICS AND STRUCTURE:
CHASSIS
More use of lightweight materials e.g. aluminium, plastics and composites and efficient body-airflow design are essential ingredients for overall vehicle performance as confirmed by efficiency development being carried on by present day motor vehicle manufacturers. The additional expense of using such exotic raw materials will be offset against a longer vehicle design life. There is no reason other than a manufacturers need for new sales and the whims of fashion generated by those same car makers, why a vehicle should not last 40 or more years. A more responsible attitude to use and re-use of the Earth's resources will have to be adopted by the governing powers and set down as guidelines for industry. I myself drive a 24 year old
Volkswagen Beetle, only modified to bring the performance in line with what is currently expected - the basic chassis, bodyshell and engine remain as originally designed by
Professor Ferdinand Porsche. This ideaology is not intended to restrict performance or style or indeed enjoyment from the use of the motor vehicle, only to rationalise the ecological impact of man on his environment.

For the battery exchange system to be effectively incorporated particularly into a/any traditional passenger vehicle design (car) without altering the publicly accepted: shape, handling, useable space and functional practicality, it will be necessary to rethink the structural layout basics of the chassis component (floorpan) of a conventionally built unitary shell. It is not possible to simply add-on such a large item without destroying some of the above criterea. To
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM.Page 35
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED integrate the loading mechanism effectively a complete rethink is necessary leaping over/ahead of chassis evolution over the past 50 years some of which is not relevant to the new problems posed by the incorporation of such a large loading mechanism, while at the same time using any applicable advances/techniques already developed. It is desireable for the the vehicle structure and battery-power-pack loading mechanism to be one integrated unit.

The battery loading assembly of a longitudinal design necessitates a tunnel from the front of the car to the back which is open from the underneath for the length of the vehicle. Thus transverse load bearing members will have to take loads over the top of the inverted "U" section tunnel which in most cases will (obviously) form a rigid backbone member or beam. The open underside of the longitudinal backbone will be prone to flexing where the sides open away from each other or close together, under load. Because of this the transverse load bearing members will also have to form a rigid (triangulating) stiffener to prevent opening of the backbone tunnel sides. The loads through the transverse stiffening members will have to travel up and over/across the inverted "U" section tunnel.Additional torsion boxes incorporated as sills can be used in the normal way, joining with the transverse members and a braced floorpan included to take passenger loads, the whole assembly providing much additional rigidity.

Fortunately, monocoque, unitary spaceframe or beam construction lend themselves to the incorporation of a purpose built battery-power-pack loading mechanism most acceptably.

Another benefit of a low slung battery-power-pack, centrally mounted longitudinally coupled with evenly spaced drive motors, one per wheel, is the perfect balance of weight distribution and low centre of gravity that has never been acheived with any petrol powered vehicle. The benefits in terms of improved standards of roadholding, braking stability and possible separation of heavy mechanical components from human occupants in the event of a collision, are incalculably beneficial contributions to road safety.

SUSPENSION
Any reduction in the number of components and complexity should lead to longer term reliability of a working mechanism/machine. The incorporation of a wishbone type suspension where either top or lower wishbone arms is/are replaced by a wishbone shaped single leaf spring or a single leaf third link and steering arm, is an addition to the
Wolverine electric vehicle system allowing positive engineering benefit. By using the leaf spring correctly in any particular application negative camber change closely
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 36
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED following that achieved by conventional unequal length wishbone systems may be attained. Any of the ways describing the use of this system have the advantage of reducing the number of components, clutter and unsprung weight.This present system uses the wishbone shaped spring or single leaf spring third link and/or flexible/spring steering control arm in one of three ways:
A. As the lower wishbone component, fixed in such a way as to have the spring topside in compression and bending under the load of the vehicles weight upwards or away from the ground so as to straighten and lengthen the spring arm proportional to load applied. The spring curving downwards towards the ground in the normal position or when the vehicle is at rest.

B. As the upper wishbone component or third link, fixed in such a way as to have the spring topside in tension and bending under the load of the vehicles weight/cornering forces upwards or away from the ground so as to increase the bend of the spring arm and reduce the length in proportion to the load applied. In this application the steering arm control rod will also have to be able to flex in a close match to reduce its length by the same proportions.as the main spring component, to maintain a true vehicle line/course under cornering conditions.

C. As a combination of A. and B.

Spring taper design, length and material choice can be selected to allow almost any geometry set-up, spring rates, etc., to be applied as handling and cornering characteristics.

Additionally, chassis design will benefit from having shock input loads distributed from a point lower than is possible with other suspension designs, also simplifying chassis design and calculations during design and lowering the vehicles centre of gravity.

VEHICLE CONTROLS
Motor road vehicles, including Cars, Vans and Trucks, use a system whereby five separate levers and a large geared wheel have to be co-ordinated by the driver to effect directional and velocity change or control. The system is clumsy, taking many hours of rehearsal to reach a stage of familiarisation where a person having normal faculties can control/drive a vehicle so equipped. Moreover, the expense of manufacturing and fitting many separate control devices, could be reduced if combined in one compact unit. Additionally, the compactness and simplicity of the combined lever system, lends itself to coupling with electrical/electronic sensors/transducers - a desirable asset if the passenger car and delivery van is to progress with computer aided driving techniques in the future.
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM.Page 37
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
This present Wolverine system groups all the driving controls onto a single double jointed lever, or lever sharing the same axis/pivot point, or joystick, located comfortably for the seated Driver. One handgrip or a split handgrip station forming two separate handles is/are fitted atop the joystick (transversly approximately 150 millimetres apart for the split handgrip station). The split handgrip station enables either hand to be freed more easily when required for supplementary control usage. The split handgrip station also provides a more even application of input effort. However, it is possible to drive a vehicle with single or split handgrip stations, one/single handed. To accelerate the vehicle, the
Driver merely pushes the lever forward. To steer, the Driver pushes/pulls/points left - to go left, or right - to go right.

To brake the vehicle, the Driver pulls back on the lever. The accelerating and braking functions may be reversed, but for application on electrically powered vehicles are considered to be more practical as stated.

Conventional braking components and systems that are well known, for example: hydraulic expanding shoe (M.Loughead 1920 later lockheed) and/or disc caliper (F.W.Lanchester 1902 & BR<
Dunlop 1953-4) arrangements, may be connected to the joystick by having a master cylinder mounted on the joystick shaft connected by a push-rod from the handgrip station(s) and then with flexible hydraulic hoses and/or remote fluid reservoirs, master-cylinders and/or by flexible wire (Bowden) cable connections/linkages. Servo assistance may also be applied, though not as a necessary requirement for the braking system to work, but rather an addition for the purpose of reducing a driver s input effort and making the driving act less demanding.

As with most vehicle accelerator controls, a simple inner-wire (Bowden) cable with a captive/end-stopped flexible wound wire enclosing outer-casing/cover, usually spring tensioned, may be used, being by far the simplest/easiest method of transferring light lever applied loadings and a well known automotive application. Hydraulic couplings and circuits will in this instance be an unduly complicated and costly method of load/movement transfer as will any solid coupling rod, hinge, ball-joint, lever, sliding-rod or gear method that may be applied with great difficulty. The cable method may attach to any convenient part of the handgrip station(s) movement.

However, it is suggested that the nipple, ball, pinched or pin-pivoted cable end, meets with the lower part of the brake push-rod to minimise clutter about the main shaft and prevent unnecessary/additional cable bending. The cable may then join conveniently with the speed controlling devices of/within the vehicle.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 38
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
A parking/emergency brake is incorporated in the joystick system, being operated by a shrouded lever set against the joystick main lever/shaft. The shrouding of the lever is designed to protect the Driver against accidentally initiating the parking/emergency brake function. The lever may be positioned either left or right and hinged or pulled, in operation, away/towards the Driver. The parking brake is a direct mechanically operated system via hinges, levers, cables or rods.

A pod or console is placed approximately one hundred millimetres before the joystick handle(s), within easy reach.

The pod or console contains/holds the usual electrical switchgear to control the: Ignition/Power-on switch,
Indicators, Lights, Wipers and Horn. The Ignition/Power-on switch may work in conjunction with (double as) a high security device which may be activated by: Coded key-pad,
Infra-red wave decoding, Voice-recognition, Fingerprint- scan, or Ultrasonic identification operation, in any order or combination. The security device or combination of devices forming a unit, is located on the upper forward facing facets, left or right, ahead of the switches operating the: lights, indicators, horn and wipers of the motor vehicle. The pod or console described, is attached to and moves with the joystick to provide constant location relative to hand position, whilst driving.

The inclusion of a facility to allow adjustment is engineered into the joystick system to provide for raising or lowering of the handgrip station(s) relative to floor or seat position, and lengthening or shortening of the shaft(s) and linkages relative to dashboard and handgrip(s) position. The adjustable system being geometrically arranged so that the ratios affecting feel remain unaltered. Thus any vehicle fitted with the joystick system, may be set up by a driver to match any other vehicle also fitted with the joystick system.

This will provide a method of layout standardisation to alleviate familiarisation problems, when changing from one vehicle to another.

The joystick action is geared (mechanical advantage ratios adjusted) to allow a person of normal strength to be able to operate the steering action, without straining unduly. Power assistance may be added by electrical or pneumatic servos or by hydraulic means in parallel with the direct mechanical linkages of the joystick system, but is only a means of easing the steering movements and is not an operational necessity.

The joystick steering, left-right, motion may connect with conventional rack-and-pinion, recirculating-ball or any of a number of different and well known systems via suitable: Rose,
Metalastic or other Ball and Hinge joint arrangements.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 39
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
By way of example: a tube/bar/rod or parallel-double-rod, equating the rack section of a rack-and-pinion system, is set in bearings at either end (the bearings being fitted securely to the vehicle frame) so that the tube/bar/rod is free to move transversly from wheel to wheel by a sufficient clearance movement, to allow the normal steering action when track-rods or tie-bars at either end of the tube/rod/bar meet via suitable ball type joints, with the steering control arms on each upright or kingpin. The joystick main shaft is set in steel roller bearings, longitudinally, at its lower end (close to the floor) so that a transverse arc may be described from left to right.The single or split handgrip stations are located at the top of the joystick shaft (near the drivers hands) and is/are set in plain bronze bearings, transversely, so that the handgrip(s) describe a smaller longitudinal arc forward and back. The combination of these two arcs/actions gives a two dimensional movement to the joystick, as felt by the driver holding/moving the handgrip(s). Motion left and right, joins with the bar/rod/tube via a connecting tube taken from approximately 33% up from the floor pivot-point on the joystick main shaft. The connecting tube has ball joints on each end and is adjustable for length. The opposite end of the connecting tube meets with the steering rod/bar/tube near the end of the rod/bar/tube on the opposite side of the vehicle to the drivers seat. if the driver has a central position within the vehicle, either end may be used.Thus the left and right movement of the joystick main shaft pushes and pulls the rod/bar/tube and in so doing changes the steering wheels angle in relation to the vehicles direction of travel and effects vehicle steering.

The system described, when used in the following combination is a hybrid vehicle control, especially suitable for use on electric vehicles, being a combination of General Motors power operated electronic vehicle joystick control, patent number
GB 0883554 A of 1959., being the speed and braking components, and my own manually operated mechanical joystick control patent number GB 2218187 A of 1988., being the steering and braking components, combined together and with additions to both systems (especially speed and braking):
Acceleration - is effected by applying a variable controlling voltage input via a back and forward movement of the joystick handgrip(s), to the vehicle's speed/power controller.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 40
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
Braking - is effected by conventional mechanical and/or hydraulic systems that are well known, being supplemented by regenerative retardation of the main drive motors when switched to a generating mode and by the use of said generated electrical energy or electrical energy stored in the vehicle's energy storage system, to apply electrically powered servos as power assistance or servo assistance to the braking system.

The joystick handle(s) movement backward and forward initiating switching instructions and apportionment to the regenerative and electrical-servo-assistance-unit(s).

Steering - as described above.

Drive-by-wire is a term applied to motor road vehicles where all of the driver control inputs are fed to the mechanical actuating components via electrical and electronic means.

Vehicles equipped in this way have no direct mechanical links from/to the driver. Because of the safety requirements by governing bodies such as the Department of Transport and/or the ECE (EC directives) and/or USA motor road vehicle
Construction and Use Regulations and any similar Regulations as applied to/by any other Country's Legislation, vehicles with no direct mechanical link to basic functions of a motor road vehicle, consisting essentially of Steering and Braking functions, are deemed not to be suitable for use on the public roads. Thus, drive-by-wire joystick applications may not gain the Type-Approval necessary for sale to the public.

A hybrid joystick system overcomes this problem by using direct mechanical linkages in the areas considered necessary for safe/emergency vehicle operation. Only the accelerator control of a hybrid system is not directly linked to the motor speed control. As this is quite normal practice in electrically powered vehicles, it follows that hybrid joystick systems will be especially suitable for use in conjunction with electrically powered motor road vehicles.

KEY TO PATENT DIAGRAM:
Combined Lever and Switch Control Layout Example - Fig.7
Illustrating a push to brake, pull to accelerate version of the joystick control where the lower hinge rod may extend rearwards for four wheel steering applications.

A. Bearing blocks
B. Brake master cylinder
C. Floor mounted roller bearings
D. Plain bronze handle bearings
E. Track rod end
F. Transverse linking rods or tubes
G. Driver comfort adjustments
H. Handle mounted pod for switches
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 41
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
The vehicle joystick control system, descriptions and applications provided above are in no way to be taken as being definitive or limiting to the concept of joystick driving controls in motor road vehicles, but are given as layout examples/methods, so that the reader might more easily understand how the invention may be enacted and the basic requirements for the/a system to work in a motor road vehicle.

AERODYNAMIC FORM AND SEATING LAYOUT
The most obvious change suggested as being a desirable incorporation to any vehicle structure, is the adoption of the 1-2-1 seating arrangement which will allow major re-working/management of the airflow around and over any vehicle by more closely matching a vehicle's form in plan view and side elevation to the ideal of a pure teardrop. Applying refined principles of aerodynamics to the generally accepted vehicle form can in no way achieve what is theoretically possible by altering the starting point vehicle form to more closely approximate the ideal.

By changing the seating positions it is possible to improve radically the starting point from which detail refinements can be made. Assuming minimum frontal area commensurate with freedom of movement essential to passenger comfort this present system places the driver ahead of two centrally located, side by side, seating positions, with a further single seat behind in the rear of the vehicle. The rear seating position is also centrally located and may be facing in either direction, accepting that if it is facing towards the rear of the vehicle aerodynamic purity will be even greater.

Research into driving habits shows that on most occasions a car is used by one person only. On the occasions a car is occupied by more than one passenger there are usually two or three people in the car. It is very rare indeed for all of the available seats in a vehicle to be occupied. Common sense should tell us that if we must have four seats in a motor vehicle, then the ones that are only occupied occasionally or least of all, need not be prominently located and the regimentation applying to traditional seating positions is due for reevaluation. The driver being centrally located at the front of the car is logically better placed to observe traffic conditions. Ergonomics of the vehicle layout are also improved. A centrally placed driver is also less likely to be injured in a collision.Additionally, a motor road vehicle with a central driving control position, is suitable for use in Left or Right Hand Drive applications and those countries pertaining to. For all of these reasons a 1 - 2 - 1 seating position will benefit those using the vehicle so equipped.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 42
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
CONCLUSION:
This present system is enhanced greatly by the percentage contributions described and the high efficiency drive, helping to balance the need to keep weight to a minimum and pass drive to the road surface without geartrain/driveshaft losses. Drag caused by the vehicle form cutting through the air can be reduced considerably and the vehicle still remain practical. Frictional rolling resistances have, as far as is theoretically possible been reduced to a minimum, bearing in mind the present day tyre compounds/tread designs available.

This present comprehensive system/formula can be made to work acceptably well with total vehicle drive output in the ranges 1 to 100kw. Proportional adjustments will have to be made to solar charging areas and battery store capacities for vehicles with/requiring the higher output ranges (i.e. over 16 kilowatts).

The inherent handling characteristics, being much improved by the ideal weight distribution made possible by incorporation of this present comprehensive Wolverine system, i.e. batteries would normally be located low down and in an easy-to-service configuration giving a balanced layout that would be difficult to emulate with any internal combustion engined vehicle and there being no other heavy item or component necessary to complete a vehicle mechanically or structurally, and the motors being situated as suggested; tyres can be reduced in width and tread designs altereddeveloped to reduce the rolling resistance. Any reduction of the rolling resistance gained by this method, would in effect increase the efficiency or range of the vehicle.

It is necessary for the public to be re-educated into accepting higher initial investment/outlay for longer term gains and come to terms with a change in the way we view and use renewable and non-renewable resources. A base model four seat vehicle with a life expectancy of twenty-five years, might cost double its internal combustion engined rival until volume sales evened out research, development, tooling and marketing costs of the/a new product. However, the overall benefits of running such a vehicle will be seen to be not only environmentally friendly, but also long term, much more economical.

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 43
PATENT DESCRIPTION CONTINUED
The integrated mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic and/or hydraulic components of this present Combined Hub,
Wheel, Axle, Brake, Regenerative Braking System, Electrical
Differential, Electrical Drive Motor, Adjustable Commutator
Timing System and Power Supply/Storage/Collection System, or
Wolverine - Comprehensive Electric Motor Road Vehicle System, provides a new base for the further advancement of electrically powered vehicles and electrically powered vehicle systems as may be required in future electrically powered transportation application.

Provision is made within this present Wolverine
Comprehensive Electric Motor Road Vehicle System invention, for the many different and varied combinations of application likely to be exercised and the examples given by way of.

description herein are not to be taken in any way to be limiting in the application of the invention.

Additionally, the/a Comprehensive Electric Motor Road Vehicle
System invention, lends itself to future developments in electrically powered vehicle technology, further/future developments will require.

It should be evident from the above, that the subject matter of the invention can be modified and utilised in multivarious ways and can be adapted to various demands and purposes, as may be required in the future development of electrically powered vehicles.

NOTE: definitions and meanings contained within this present patent specification, are as supplied/taken by/from the Oxford
English Dictionary.

 


 

 

 

B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 44

PATENT CLAIMS


What I claim is :

 

1. A BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) EXCHANGE REFUELLING SYSTEM wherein recharged (hence refuelled) standardised, format-compatible or matching main store traction/drive batteries or battery-power-pack(s), held as an own spare, company back-up, or by any roadside vending system or vehicle dealer or battery charging service, or other owned/stored/provided method, may be exchanged or swopped-over with/for the battery-power-pack(s) main store traction/drive batteries carried on an electrically driven motor road vehicle (being discharged or low on stored charge), by an inbuilt quick-release unloading/disconnecting-loading/connecting mounting and demounting mechanism/system, which mounting and demounting procedure may be executed by manual or other powered operation or powered operation with manual overide, for the purpose of supplying the electrically powered motor road vehicle with a fresh/new/replacement battery-power-pack containing a full/complete/greater charge and in so doing reloading the/a electrically powered motor road vehicle low on charge or refuelling the electrically powered motor road vehicle, and in effect, extending/improving it's operating flexibility and range.Additionally, and/or in combination or supplemental or as a replacement to the above, where a conveying, lifting, lowering and/or positioning mechanism/machine and decoupling/demounting/disconnecting mechanism/machine is combined and powered electrically and/or hydraulically and/or pneumatically in order be able to unload and then reload a/the battery-power-pack or traction batteries, of an electrically powered motor road vehicle, to form a power operated battery-power-pack/traction-battery unloading/demounting and loading/mounting system, external to the vehicle being refuelled, for the purpose of handling the heavy drive batteries of electrically powered motor road vehicles in a safe, quick and convenient way, thus relieving an otherwise demanding manual operation and particularly making roadside/forecourt/service-station traction-battery changes in/on electrically powered motor road vehicle(s), a practical everyday or commonplace operation. The BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) REFUELLING SYSTEM, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Battery-Power-Pack(s) Refuelling System forming part of A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM, comprised of physically buildable/constructable working combinations substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying description, diagrams and abstract (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).

(continued)
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 45
PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED


Or where any combination of this claim and claims 2., 3., or 4. below or any combination of any of the specific parts of the claims in any order or quantity, are used on their own or in combination with any known method of propelling or powering an electrically motivated motor road vehicle to form a practical electric motor road vehicle system to be known henceforth as A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM or WOLVERINE electric vehicle system.Or where there is a substitution of any of the materials, for a different or alternative material used to make/fabricate/manufacture any of the components so as to change/alter the specification of the components that go to make up any part of this present system for the purpose of: improving the performance, reducing the cost of production, simplifying the production process, and/or altering the specifications of a/any electrical vehicle system so as to differ, only in part, from the specifications contained within this present system/method/patent.

2. AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE INSTRUMENT, EXCHANGE, MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT CONTROL SYSTEM wherein an onboard instrument and information exchange system is used to warn a driver of traction battery condition and/or show electrical energy exchange information and/or financial exchange information.

The same instrument and information exchange system is used to communicate or transfer stored and in-progress information to a receiving terminal at a battery-power-pack vending or exchange/refuelling service, and the same instrument and information exchange system may be utilised to control or manage mains electricity charging, also storing information of energy exchanged. The information exchange system may also be used to verify and/or initiate battery-power-pack exchanges via a forecourt/service-station information accepting terminal. Where identification and credit or currency transactions may also be carried out, for the purpose of providing a battery-power-pack roadside/forecourt exchange location or vending service-station network with practical battery-power-pack handlinglloadinglcharging and credit exchange facilities, or an unmanned roadside/forecourt/service-station to provide a more economically and conveniently maintained/managed traction-battery vending system for electrically powered motor road vehicles.The ELECTRIC VEHICLE INSTRUMENT, EXCHANGE, MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT CONTROL SYSTEM to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Electric Vehicle Instrument, Exchange, Management and Control System, forming part of A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM comprised of physically buildable/constructable working combinations substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying description, diagrams and abstract (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English
Dictionary).

(continued)
B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 46
PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED


Or where any combination of this claim and claim 1. above and claims 3., or 4. below or any combination of any of the specific parts of the claims in any order or quantity, are used on their own or in combination with any known method of propelling or powering an electrically motivated motor road vehicle to form a practical electric motor road vehicle system to be known henceforth as A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM or WOLVERINE electric vehicle system.Or where there is a substitution of any of the materials, for a different or alternative material used to make/fabricate/manufacture any of the components so as to change/alter the specification of the components that go to make up any part of this present system for the purpose of: improving the performance, reducing the cost of production, simplifying the production process, and/or altering the specifications of a/any electrical vehicle system so as to differ, only in part, from the specifications contained within this present system/method/patent.

3. A COMBINED ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN WHEEL AND MOTOR MACHINE OR WHEEL-MOTOR wherein the conductors, insulators, windings, laminations/cores, magnetic components/materials, commutating components (where applicable) and cooling components are incorporated and integrated into the normal hub, axle, bearings and wheel rim of a motor road vehicle, in such a way as to form a combined wheel and motor for the purpose of driving/motivating an electrically powered motor road vehicle The wheel and combined motor machine to be known henceforth as a wheel-motor or motor-wheel.The COMBINED ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN WHEEL AND MOTOR MACHINE OR WHEEL-MOTOR to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Combined Electrically Driven Wheel and Motor Machine or Wheel-Motor system, forming part of A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM comprised of physically buildable/constructable working combinations substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying description, diagrams and abstract (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English
Dictionary).

Or where any combination of this claim and claim 1. and 2.

above and claim 4. below or any combination of any of the specific parts of the claims in any order or quantity, are used on their own or in combination with any known method of propelling or powering an electrically motivated motor road vehicle to form a practical electric motor road vehicle system to be known henceforth as A COMPREHENSIVE
ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM or WOLVERINE electric vehicle system. Or where there is a substitution of any of the materials, for a different or alternative material used to make/fabricate/manufacture any of the components so as to change/alter the specification of the components that go to make up any part of this present system for the

 


B60 K & - COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Page 47
PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED 

 

purpose of: improving the performance, reducing the cost of production, simplifying the production process, and/or altering the specifications of a/any electrical vehicle system so as to differ, only in part, from the specifications contained within this present system/method/patent.

4. A COMBINED SOLAR CELL AND BODY PANELLING SYSTEM FOR MOTOR ROAD VEHICLES wherein solar cell collecting panels are constructed as sandwich body panels and connected onto a motor road vehicle to form the body panels of that motor road vehicle and thus a combined body panel and solar cell system. The COMBINED SOLAR CELL AND BODY PANELLING SYSTEM FOR MOTOR ROAD VEHICLES to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Combined Solar Cell and Body Panelling System for Motor Road Vehicles, forming part of a COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM comprised of physically buildable/constructable working combinations substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying description, diagrams and abstract (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English
Dictionary).

Or where any combination of this claim and claim 1., 2.

and 3. above any combination of any of the specific parts of the claims in any order or quantity, are used on their own or in combination with any known method of propelling or powering an electrically motivated motor road vehicle to form a practical electric motor road vehicle system to be known henceforth as A COMPREHENSIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM or WOLVERINE electric vehicle system.Or where there is a substitution of any of the materials, for a different or alternative material used to make/fabricate/manufacture any of the components so as to change/alter the specification of the components that go to make up any part of this present system for the purpose of: improving the performance, reducing the cost of production, simplifying the production process, and/or altering the specifications of a/any electrical vehicle system so as to differ, only in part, from the specifications contained within this present system/method/patent.


860 K & - ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Page 4


Amendments to the claims have been filed as follows:-

 

1. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES comprising a BATTERY-POWER-PACES EXCHANGE REFUELLING MECHANISM where recharged (hence refuelled) standardised, format-compatible or matching main store traction/drive batteries or battery-power-pack(s), held as an own spare, company back-up, or by any roadside vendor or vehicle dealer or battery charging service, or other owned/stored/provided method, may be exchanged or swopped-over with/for the battery-power-pack(s) main store traction/drive batteries carried on an electrically driven motor road vehicle (being discharged or low on stored charge), by an onboard/inbuilt quick-release unloading/disconnect ing-loading/connecting mounting and demounting mechanism/system, which mounting and demounting procedure may be executed by manual or other powered operation or powered operation with manual overide, for the purpose of supplying the electrically powered motor road vehicle with a fresh/new/replacement battery-power-pack containing a full/complete/greater charge and in so doing reloading the/a electrically powered motor road vehicle low on charge or refuelling the electrically powered motor road vehicle, and in effect, extending/improving it's operating flexibility and range.The BATTERY-POWER-PACE(S) EXCHANGE REFUELLING SYSTEM, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Battery-Power-Pack(s) Refuelling System, forming part of the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).

2. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in claim 1. wherein the onboard manual or powered unloading/disconnecting-loading/connecting or mounting and demounting mechanism is built into and constructed as part of the vehicle frame and/or body, so as to form an integral component, or part, or component part of the vehicle. The integral/incorporated/integrated BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) EXCHANGE REFUELLING SYSTEM MECHANISM, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Unitarised Battery-Power-Pack(s) Exchange Refuelling System, forming part the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English
Dictionary).


B60 K & - ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Page 9
PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED 

 

3. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in claims 1. and 2. wherein the vehicle chassis and/or modified chassis and body parts or shell are utilised as battery-power-pack(s) guides or receiving holder/housing, with or without the incorporation of insulating/shock-absorbing stops. The integral/incorporated/integrated BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) EXCHANGE REFUELLING SYSTEM GUIDE OR HOUSING, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Unitarised Battery-Power-Pack(s) Exchange Refuelling System, forming part the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).

4. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in claims 1., 2. and 3. wherein an onboard INSTRUMENT, MANAGEMENT,. EXCHANGE AND CREDIT CONTROL SYSTEM is used in conjunction with the/a BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) EXCHANGE MECHANISM as claimed in claims 1., 2. or 3. or a/any known battery exchange system other than that claimed in claim 1., 2. or 3. above, to warn a driver of traction battery condition and/or show electrical energy exchange information and/or financial exchange information and/or user identity information.The same instrument and information exchange system being used to communicate or transfer stored and in-progress information to a receiving terminal at a battery-power-pack vending or exchange/refuelling service, and the same instrument and information exchange system (optionally) being utilised to control or manage mains electricity charging, also storing information of energy exchanged in either direction from a loaded battery-power-pack. The information exchange system in conjunction with stored information of user identity and recognition may also be used to verify and/or initiate battery-power-pack exchanges via a forecourt/service-station information accepting terminal as claimed in claim 6. below, where currency debit and credit transactions may also be carried out via temporary storage onto/into a coded magnetic particle medium or other electronic storage medium, for decoding/reading/retrieval hence transfer to/by the accepting terminal. The ELECTRIC VEHICLE INSTRUMENT, EXCHANGE, MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT CONTROL SYSTEM to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Electric Vehicle Instrument, Exchange, Management and Control System, forming part of THE WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).


B60 K & - ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Page 5w,
PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED 

 

5. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in any preceding claim wherein A BATTERY-POWER-PACE(S) FORECOURT MECHANISED VENDING SYSTEM is used to convey, lift, lower and/or position the replacement battery-power-pack(s) for/of an electric vehicle equipped with the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in any preceding claim, to preclude manual handling of the battery-power-pack to/from a suitable position from where an electric vehicle using the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES may pick up/reload or drop/unload a battery-power-pack.The vending operation handling the heavy drive batteries to/from a storage or charging bay and to/from the drop/pick-up location for/of the/a WOLVERINE equipped electric vehicle, in a safe quick and convenient way, thus relieving an otherwise demanding manual operation and particularly making roadside/forecourt/service-station traction-battery changes in/on WOLVERINE equipped electrically powered motor road vehicles, a practical everyday or commonplace operation.

The BATTERY-POWER-PACK(S) FORECOURT MECHANISED VENDING SYSTEM, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Battery-Power-Pack(s) Forecourt Mechanised Vending System, forming part of the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).

6. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the POWER-PACK FORECOURT MECHANISED VENDING SYSTEM claimed in claim 5.

above is instructed by a FORECOURT TERMINAL by a vehicle user/driver/operator, directly, by entering information via a keypad and/or, indirectly, by using the onboard instrument information transfer card by insertion and reading/decoding by the terminal, or other electronicaly coded transfer medium and decoding method as claimed in claim 4. above, for the purpose of requesting initiation of battery-power-pack refuelling and/or other associated activity/requirement. The FORECOURT TERMINAL using computer/microprocessor and associated hardware, together with controlling program(s) as software, for operating (system) instructions, together with a customer/supplier/rate/stock data-base, when being used in/as a local or a national network energy supply system for electric vehicles.The FORECOURT TERMINAL, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Forecourt Terminal, forming part of the WOLVERINE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).


B60 K & - ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Page 5


PATENT CLAIMS CONTINUED 7. 

 

AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the vehicle traction motor components are incorporated into the wheel-rim, hub, axle and bearings, in such a way as to form a driven wheel or Wheel-Motor, for the purpose of eliminating transmission complications, hence providing an uncluttered vehicle (chassis/body) underside, so aiding in the flexibility of design of Battery-Power-Pack(s) loading methods/mechanisms.

The MOTOR-WHEEL, to be known henceforth as the WOLVERINE Motor-Wheel, forming part of the WOLVERING ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES, (definitions and meanings as taken/supplied from/by the Oxford English Dictionary).

8. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein any combination of the claims, or any combination of any of the specific parts of the claims in any order or quantity, are used on their own or in combination with any known method of propelling or powering an electrically motivated motor road vehicle to form a practical electric motor road vehicle system to be known henceforth as AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES or WOLVERINE electric vehicle system, or WOLVERINE COMPREHENSIVE MOTOR ROAD VEHICLE SYSTEM. Or where there is a substitution of any of the materials, for a different or alternative material used to make/fabricate/manufacture any of the components so as to change/alter the specification of the components that go to make up any part of this present system for the purpose of: improving the performance, reducing the cost of production, simplifying the production process, and/or altering the specifications of a/any electric vehicle energy transfer system so as to differ, only in part, from the specifications contained within this present system/method/patent.

9. AN ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying description and diagrams.

 

Before filing this patent, the inventor filed GB2218187A for a joystick controlled vehicle.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bluebird battery cartridge exchange system                                                     Bluebird battery cartridge exchange trademark

Bluebird solar panels                                   Intelligent Battery Support System                                    Blue bird bluebird electric motors trademark logo

THE BLUE BIRDS OF HAPPINESS

 

The stunning design above is the Blueplanet Ecostar - a solar powered world electric LSR contender

with a  target speed of 350mph+. See plan and side elevations of this car at the foot of this page -

or click on the images to read more. Unlike Formula E cars, this land speed record car can refuel

instantly using built in battery cartridge exchange. This car does not need a service station.

 

 

 

European Commission star circle logo  NineSigma, Canada investing in innovation  Technology Strategy Board planet earth logo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This website is copyright 1991- 2013 Electrick Publications. All rights reserved. The bird logo Blueplanet bird trademarkand names Blueplanet Ecostar and Blue Max are trademarks .  The Blueplanet vehicle configuration is registered .  All other trademarks hereby acknowledged. 

 Max Energy Limited is an educational charity working for world peace.

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