ELECTRONIC MONEY TRANSFERS
Electronic money (also known as electronic currency, digital currency, digital money or internet money) refers to money which is exchanged only electronically. Typically, this involves use of computer networks, the internet and digital stored value systems. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and direct deposit are examples of electronic money. Also, it is a collective term for financial cryptography and technologies enabling it.
While electronic money has been an interesting problem for cryptography (see for example David Chaum's work), to-date use of digital cash has been relatively low-scale. One rare success has been Hong Kong's Octopus card system, which started as a transit payment system and has grown into a widely used electronic cash system. Another success is Canada's Interac network, which in 2000 at retail (in Canada) surpassed cash  as a payment method.
Singapore has a very successful electronic money implementation for its public bus transportation system, which is very similar to Hong Kong's Octopus card. The electronic money, known as EZLink by most Singaporeans, is a card the size of an ordinary credit card; it has a smart chip plus a wireless communication module. Passengers just need to tap the EZLink when they board the bus and tap the card again when they alight; the bus fare system automatically deducts the calculated bus fare from the EZLink value. Recently, McDonalds is setting up EZLink payment infrastructure at their fast-food branches all over Singapore's main island. It is believed that in the near future EZLink will gain more acceptance as a convenient electronic money solution in Singapore.
Technically electronic or digital money is a representation, or a system of debits and credits, used (but not limited to this) to exchange value, within another system, or itself as a stand alone system, online or offline. Also sometimes the term electronic money is used to refer to the provider itself. A private currency may use gold to provide extra security, such as digital gold currency. An electronic currency can be fully backed by gold, like e-gold, or non-gold backed, like eeeCurrency and Liberty Reserve.
Many systems will sell their electronic currency directly to the end user, such as Paypal or e-Bullion, but other systems, such as e-gold, sell only through third party digital gold currency exchangers, like OmniPay or IceGold who service orders manually, or automated websites.
In the case of Octopus Card in Hong Kong, deposits work similarly to banks'. After Octopus Card Limited receives money for deposit from users, the money is deposited into banks, which is similar to debit-card-issuing banks redepositing money at central banks.
Some community currencies, like some LETS systems, work with electronic transactions. Cyclos Software allows creation of electronic community currencies.
Ripple monetary system is a project to develop a distributed system of electronic money independent of local currency.
Virtual debit cards
Some companies now propose virtual debit cards, which are prepaid and sometimes rechargeable VISA or Mastercard cards which the client can use in online merchant sites like any other VISA or Mastercard. This system has the advantage of being anonymous and more secure since the client can never be debited more than the value of his prepaid card; also this can be useful for people living in countries which do not authorize international money transfer. The card can be recharged with systems like e-Bullion, e-Gold or money transferred from another bank account.
Most money in today’s world is electronic, and tangible cash is becoming less frequent. With the introduction of internet / online banking, debit cards, online bill payments and internet business, paper money is becoming a thing of the past.
Banks now offer many services whereby a customer can transfer funds, purchase stocks, contribute to their retirement plans (such as Canadian RRSP) and offer a variety of other services without having to handle physical cash or checks. Customers do not have to wait in lines; this provides a lower-hassle environment.
Debit cards and online bill payments allow immediate transfer of funds from an individual's personal account to a business's account without any actual paper transfer of money. This offers a great convenience to many people and businesses alike.
Although there are many benefits to digital cash, there are also many significant disadvantages. These include fraud, failure of technology, possible tracking of individuals and loss of human interaction.
Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent years. Hacking into bank accounts and illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a widespread invasion of privacy and has promoted identity theft.
There is also a pressing issue regarding the technology involved in digital cash. Power failures, loss of records and undependable software often cause a major setback in promoting the technology.
Privacy questions have also been raised; there is a fear that the use of debit cards and the like will lead to the creation by the banking industry of a global tracking system. Some people are working on anonymous ecash to try to address this issue.
The main focuses of digital cash development are 1) being able to use it through a wider range of hardware such as secured credit cards; and 2) linked bank accounts that would generally be used over an internet means, for exchange with a secure micropayment system such as in large corporations (PayPal).
Furthering network evolution in terms of the use of digital cash, a company named DigiCash is at the focus of creating an e-cash system that would allow issuers to sell electronic coins at some value. When they are purchased they come under someone’s own name and are stored on his computer or under his online identity. At all times, the e-cash is linked to the e-cash company and all transactions go through it, so the e-cash company secures anything that is purchased. Only the company knows your information and will properly direct purchases to your location.
Theoretical developments in the area of decentralized money are underway that may rival traditional, centralized money. Systems of accounting such as Altruistic Economics are emerging that are entirely electronic, and can be more efficient and more realistic because they do not assume a transaction model.
SOLAR COLA as an INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY?
The soft drinks market is a tough place to do business, unless you have something different to offer and the marketing muscle to match.
For nearly 100 years Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola have dominated the marketplace with similar products. Each company spends around $600-800 million dollars a year to maintain its market position. The advertising centers around sport and music, with a scattering of irregular television campaigns. Each company launches (or attempts to launch) new brands every year. So far, they have not proved as successful as their regular cola brands.
Red Bull, although in a different drinks category, spends not quite as much on advertising , but has managed to acquire instant status and volume sales from sponsoring formula one, the Darpa Desert Challenge, and now the New Jersey MetroStars football team.
Solar Cola, apart from it's contemporary name, is a healthier cola based drink. Just as refreshing, it contains a unique blend of added ingredients as an aid to good health and energy levels. The company contributes to and sponsors alternative projects, to include this website, featuring movies, music and several thousand pages of general information, which generates in excess of 3 million visits a month already. Recent acquisitions include the rights to the Solar Navigator World Electric Challenge - 2009/10, and also the new Bluebird Electric land speed record car for 2007/8. The company may also sponsor the London to Brighton Solar Car Run in 2008 (dependent on the number of university entries received).
It is thought that this marketing strategy will equal several hundred thousand dollars of conventional Ad Agency spending. As an example of the kind of media coverage such nautical antics generate, you have only to look at the newspapers when Ellen Macarthur completed her world circumnavigation. The same holds true for Sir Francis Chichester and Sir Robin Knox-Johnston.
The design of the Solar Cola can is copyright protected, with trademark applications in the USA, Australia and Europe pending in Class 32 and granted rights in the UK. Introduction of the drink is held in abeyance pending official launch of one or other sponsored projects, which will be activated when the time is right, such activation to coincide with the market introduction of the drink.
Solar Cola PLC is shortly to be activated for online investment as their trading arm. The company is forecast to produce excellent results for investors, with sustained growth to be followed by an eventual flotation on the Stock Markets of the world in the next few years. At this point estimates suggest investors will reap substantial gains - in line with international Licensing expectations.
Solar Cola Ltd is managing the funding requirement for the trading company. They are looking for medium term or seed investment between £4-5 million to kick start phase two of the venture.
If you are a Business Angel, or Equity House, looking for an opportunity with the potential for good returns, please contact SOLAR COLA LTD for details of their business plan. Or for and informal chat, please ask for the funding project manager: Nelson Kruschandl
+ 44 (0) 1323 831727
+44 (0) 7905 147709
This material and any views expressed herein are provided for information purposes only and should not be construed in any way as a prospectus or offer. Please contact the company concerned for information of any business opportunity or specific program. Before investing in any business, you must obtain, read and examine thoroughly its disclosure document or offering memorandum.
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Solar Cola - the healthier cola alternative
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